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Nanodroplet-Vaporization-Assisted Sonoporation for Highly Effective Delivery of Photothermal Treatment.

Liu WW, Liu SW, Liou YR, Wu YH, Yang YC, Wang CR, Li PC - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles.Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects.Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Sonoporation refers to the use of ultrasound and acoustic cavitation to temporarily enhance the permeability of cellular membranes so as to enhance the delivery efficiency of therapeutic agents into cells. Microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents are often used to facilitate these cavitation effects. This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles. Significant enhancements were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo by using gold nanorods encapsulated in nanodroplets for implementing plasmonic photothermal therapy. Combined excitation by ultrasound and laser radiation is used to trigger the gold nanodroplets to induce a liquid-to-gas phase change, which induces cavitation effects that are three-to-fivefold stronger than when using conventional microbubbles. Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects. Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

System setup for ICD measurement.The diagram shows the system setup for ICD value measurements in vitro. A/D converter, analog-to-digital converter; D/A converter, digital-to-analog converter.
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f3: System setup for ICD measurement.The diagram shows the system setup for ICD value measurements in vitro. A/D converter, analog-to-digital converter; D/A converter, digital-to-analog converter.

Mentions: Inertial cavitation is a physical phenomenon in which vapor bubbles collapse violently at sufficient acoustic pressures. To confirm that inertial cavitation was generated when optically vaporized AuNDs were exposed to ultrasound, the cavitation signals were measured according to a previously described method39, the system setup for which is illustrated in Fig. 3. Briefly, we measured broadband signals from the system, and the inertial cavitation dose (ICD) value was calculated as the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the spectrum between 9.5 MHz and 10.5 MHz. The differential ICD (dICD) value was obtained by subtracting the RMS amplitude of the contrast agent from that of water. The results showed that the dICD value increased gradually when AuNDs were exposed to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously (Fig. 4a). In contrast, the dICD value decreased gradually during the 5-minute exposure to ultrasound, while the value was difficult to calculate when AuNDs were exposed only to laser radiation. We also exposed AuMBs to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously, and found that the dICD value was also gradually reduced during the 5-minute exposure. A stronger and gradually increasing cavitation effect was found for AuNDs relative to AuMBs under exposure to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously. These data together indicate that the enhanced cavitation effect is triggered when AuNDs are exposed to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously, and it also suggests that the cavitation is predominantly induced by the ultrasound rather than the laser radiation.


Nanodroplet-Vaporization-Assisted Sonoporation for Highly Effective Delivery of Photothermal Treatment.

Liu WW, Liu SW, Liou YR, Wu YH, Yang YC, Wang CR, Li PC - Sci Rep (2016)

System setup for ICD measurement.The diagram shows the system setup for ICD value measurements in vitro. A/D converter, analog-to-digital converter; D/A converter, digital-to-analog converter.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837361&req=5

f3: System setup for ICD measurement.The diagram shows the system setup for ICD value measurements in vitro. A/D converter, analog-to-digital converter; D/A converter, digital-to-analog converter.
Mentions: Inertial cavitation is a physical phenomenon in which vapor bubbles collapse violently at sufficient acoustic pressures. To confirm that inertial cavitation was generated when optically vaporized AuNDs were exposed to ultrasound, the cavitation signals were measured according to a previously described method39, the system setup for which is illustrated in Fig. 3. Briefly, we measured broadband signals from the system, and the inertial cavitation dose (ICD) value was calculated as the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the spectrum between 9.5 MHz and 10.5 MHz. The differential ICD (dICD) value was obtained by subtracting the RMS amplitude of the contrast agent from that of water. The results showed that the dICD value increased gradually when AuNDs were exposed to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously (Fig. 4a). In contrast, the dICD value decreased gradually during the 5-minute exposure to ultrasound, while the value was difficult to calculate when AuNDs were exposed only to laser radiation. We also exposed AuMBs to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously, and found that the dICD value was also gradually reduced during the 5-minute exposure. A stronger and gradually increasing cavitation effect was found for AuNDs relative to AuMBs under exposure to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously. These data together indicate that the enhanced cavitation effect is triggered when AuNDs are exposed to ultrasound and laser radiation simultaneously, and it also suggests that the cavitation is predominantly induced by the ultrasound rather than the laser radiation.

Bottom Line: This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles.Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects.Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Sonoporation refers to the use of ultrasound and acoustic cavitation to temporarily enhance the permeability of cellular membranes so as to enhance the delivery efficiency of therapeutic agents into cells. Microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents are often used to facilitate these cavitation effects. This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles. Significant enhancements were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo by using gold nanorods encapsulated in nanodroplets for implementing plasmonic photothermal therapy. Combined excitation by ultrasound and laser radiation is used to trigger the gold nanodroplets to induce a liquid-to-gas phase change, which induces cavitation effects that are three-to-fivefold stronger than when using conventional microbubbles. Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects. Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus