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Nanodroplet-Vaporization-Assisted Sonoporation for Highly Effective Delivery of Photothermal Treatment.

Liu WW, Liu SW, Liou YR, Wu YH, Yang YC, Wang CR, Li PC - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles.Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects.Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Sonoporation refers to the use of ultrasound and acoustic cavitation to temporarily enhance the permeability of cellular membranes so as to enhance the delivery efficiency of therapeutic agents into cells. Microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents are often used to facilitate these cavitation effects. This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles. Significant enhancements were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo by using gold nanorods encapsulated in nanodroplets for implementing plasmonic photothermal therapy. Combined excitation by ultrasound and laser radiation is used to trigger the gold nanodroplets to induce a liquid-to-gas phase change, which induces cavitation effects that are three-to-fivefold stronger than when using conventional microbubbles. Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects. Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Characterization of AuNDs.(a) The optical absorption peaked at 808 nm. Inset TEM image accurately shows the aspect ratio of rod-shaped AuNRs. (b) cTEM images of NDs and AuNDs. (c) Size distributions of NDs and AuNDs. (d) Temporal temperature profiles for water, NDs, and AuNDs during exposure to continuous-wave laser radiation.
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f1: Characterization of AuNDs.(a) The optical absorption peaked at 808 nm. Inset TEM image accurately shows the aspect ratio of rod-shaped AuNRs. (b) cTEM images of NDs and AuNDs. (c) Size distributions of NDs and AuNDs. (d) Temporal temperature profiles for water, NDs, and AuNDs during exposure to continuous-wave laser radiation.

Mentions: Nanosized AuNDs with a liquid dodecafluorocarbon core and an HSA shell were synthesized using an emulsion method. The photoresponsive agent encapsulated in the NDs was AuNRs with a plasmonic surface so as to maximize the collective oscillations of electrons. To check whether the optical properties of the AuNRs were specifically tuned, the size distribution of AuNRs was determining under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the optical density (OD) of the AuNRs was investigated using spectrophotometry. TEM indicated that the AuNRs had an average aspect ratio of four—th’e rods were around 12 nm in diameter and had a length of 48 nm (Fig. 1a). Absorption wavelength measurements indicated that the longitudinal plasmon band of the AuNRs peaked at 813 nm. Cryogenic TEM (cTEM) was used to investigate the spherical structure of the AuNDs to ensure that the AuNRs had been successful encapsulated within the synthesized AuNDs. NDs and AuNDs were sectioned and then examined under TEM, which clearly showed that AuNRs were successfully encapsulated and randomly distributed in AuNDs (Fig. 1b). The size distributions of NDs and AuNDs were accurately measured utilizing dynamic light scattering, which revealed that the sizes of more than 70% of the NDs and AuNDs were distributed around 250–450 nm and 220–340 nm, respectively (Fig. 1c). Nanosized AuNDs produced according to the emulsion method followed by differential centrifugation could be isolated. To confirm that the AuNDs were exhibiting optical absorbance at 808 nm (i.e., in the near-infrared region), the temperature of AuNDs exposed to laser radiation was monitored. In comparison with controls comprising water and ND without AuNRs encapsulation, the temperature of AuNRs-encapsulated AuNDs increased rapidly within 2.5 minutes (Fig. 1d). These results indicate that the temperature of AuNDs was effectively elevated through the conversion of photon energy into heat by exposure to 808-nm near-infrared radiation.


Nanodroplet-Vaporization-Assisted Sonoporation for Highly Effective Delivery of Photothermal Treatment.

Liu WW, Liu SW, Liou YR, Wu YH, Yang YC, Wang CR, Li PC - Sci Rep (2016)

Characterization of AuNDs.(a) The optical absorption peaked at 808 nm. Inset TEM image accurately shows the aspect ratio of rod-shaped AuNRs. (b) cTEM images of NDs and AuNDs. (c) Size distributions of NDs and AuNDs. (d) Temporal temperature profiles for water, NDs, and AuNDs during exposure to continuous-wave laser radiation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4837361&req=5

f1: Characterization of AuNDs.(a) The optical absorption peaked at 808 nm. Inset TEM image accurately shows the aspect ratio of rod-shaped AuNRs. (b) cTEM images of NDs and AuNDs. (c) Size distributions of NDs and AuNDs. (d) Temporal temperature profiles for water, NDs, and AuNDs during exposure to continuous-wave laser radiation.
Mentions: Nanosized AuNDs with a liquid dodecafluorocarbon core and an HSA shell were synthesized using an emulsion method. The photoresponsive agent encapsulated in the NDs was AuNRs with a plasmonic surface so as to maximize the collective oscillations of electrons. To check whether the optical properties of the AuNRs were specifically tuned, the size distribution of AuNRs was determining under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the optical density (OD) of the AuNRs was investigated using spectrophotometry. TEM indicated that the AuNRs had an average aspect ratio of four—th’e rods were around 12 nm in diameter and had a length of 48 nm (Fig. 1a). Absorption wavelength measurements indicated that the longitudinal plasmon band of the AuNRs peaked at 813 nm. Cryogenic TEM (cTEM) was used to investigate the spherical structure of the AuNDs to ensure that the AuNRs had been successful encapsulated within the synthesized AuNDs. NDs and AuNDs were sectioned and then examined under TEM, which clearly showed that AuNRs were successfully encapsulated and randomly distributed in AuNDs (Fig. 1b). The size distributions of NDs and AuNDs were accurately measured utilizing dynamic light scattering, which revealed that the sizes of more than 70% of the NDs and AuNDs were distributed around 250–450 nm and 220–340 nm, respectively (Fig. 1c). Nanosized AuNDs produced according to the emulsion method followed by differential centrifugation could be isolated. To confirm that the AuNDs were exhibiting optical absorbance at 808 nm (i.e., in the near-infrared region), the temperature of AuNDs exposed to laser radiation was monitored. In comparison with controls comprising water and ND without AuNRs encapsulation, the temperature of AuNRs-encapsulated AuNDs increased rapidly within 2.5 minutes (Fig. 1d). These results indicate that the temperature of AuNDs was effectively elevated through the conversion of photon energy into heat by exposure to 808-nm near-infrared radiation.

Bottom Line: This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles.Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects.Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Sonoporation refers to the use of ultrasound and acoustic cavitation to temporarily enhance the permeability of cellular membranes so as to enhance the delivery efficiency of therapeutic agents into cells. Microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents are often used to facilitate these cavitation effects. This study used nanodroplets to significantly enhance the effectiveness of sonoporation relative to using conventional microbubbles. Significant enhancements were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo by using gold nanorods encapsulated in nanodroplets for implementing plasmonic photothermal therapy. Combined excitation by ultrasound and laser radiation is used to trigger the gold nanodroplets to induce a liquid-to-gas phase change, which induces cavitation effects that are three-to-fivefold stronger than when using conventional microbubbles. Enhanced cavitation also leads to significant enhancement of the sonoporation effects. Our in vivo results show that nanodroplet-vaporization-assisted sonoporation can increase the treatment temperature by more than 10 °C above that achieved by microbubble-based sonoporation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus