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Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

Salazar-Villanea M, Liebmann E, Garnier-Villarreal M, Montenegro-Montenegro E, Johnson DK - J Depress Anxiety (2015)

Bottom Line: Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect.CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers.Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Costa Rica Department of Psychology, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos.

Methods: The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables.

Results: Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US-age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hypothesized structural model. Circles represent latent variables. Single-headed arrows represent regression paths. Double-headed arrows represent latent covariances. Covariate effects, latent variances, and the measurement model are omitted from diagram.
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Figure 2: Hypothesized structural model. Circles represent latent variables. Single-headed arrows represent regression paths. Double-headed arrows represent latent covariances. Covariate effects, latent variances, and the measurement model are omitted from diagram.

Mentions: We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to define and test complex relationships among a large number of tests and latent variables (factors). CFA is a common method used to aggregate true score (common) variance across multiple subtests and attenuate error. Thus, factor scores yield more reliable and sensitive estimates of cognitive ability than do traditional analyses of raw scores or scaled score composites because they are purer indices of ability [55]. Using CFA we generated 4 cognitive outcomes and 3 affective outcomes, comprising the measurement model (Figure 1). The measurement model included seven latent variables: Verbal memory (CERAD total verbal learning score, the CERAD total word recall, and the CAMCOG total learning score), Verbal Reasoning (CERAD verbal fluency score and the CAMCOG Abstract Thinking scores), Working Memory (CAMCOG Attention/Calculation subscale score, the DS backward, and DS forward scores), Processing Speed (times to completion for the Trails A and Trails B), Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Depression. The Negative Affect, positive Affect, and Geriatric Depression were made up of parcels derived from the items comprising the items of the negative affect subscale of the PANAS, the positive affect subscale of the PANAS, and the GDS, respectively. Using SEM we tested hypothesized relationships (structural model) between affective and cognitive constructs (Figure 2).


Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

Salazar-Villanea M, Liebmann E, Garnier-Villarreal M, Montenegro-Montenegro E, Johnson DK - J Depress Anxiety (2015)

Hypothesized structural model. Circles represent latent variables. Single-headed arrows represent regression paths. Double-headed arrows represent latent covariances. Covariate effects, latent variances, and the measurement model are omitted from diagram.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836854&req=5

Figure 2: Hypothesized structural model. Circles represent latent variables. Single-headed arrows represent regression paths. Double-headed arrows represent latent covariances. Covariate effects, latent variances, and the measurement model are omitted from diagram.
Mentions: We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to define and test complex relationships among a large number of tests and latent variables (factors). CFA is a common method used to aggregate true score (common) variance across multiple subtests and attenuate error. Thus, factor scores yield more reliable and sensitive estimates of cognitive ability than do traditional analyses of raw scores or scaled score composites because they are purer indices of ability [55]. Using CFA we generated 4 cognitive outcomes and 3 affective outcomes, comprising the measurement model (Figure 1). The measurement model included seven latent variables: Verbal memory (CERAD total verbal learning score, the CERAD total word recall, and the CAMCOG total learning score), Verbal Reasoning (CERAD verbal fluency score and the CAMCOG Abstract Thinking scores), Working Memory (CAMCOG Attention/Calculation subscale score, the DS backward, and DS forward scores), Processing Speed (times to completion for the Trails A and Trails B), Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Depression. The Negative Affect, positive Affect, and Geriatric Depression were made up of parcels derived from the items comprising the items of the negative affect subscale of the PANAS, the positive affect subscale of the PANAS, and the GDS, respectively. Using SEM we tested hypothesized relationships (structural model) between affective and cognitive constructs (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect.CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers.Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Costa Rica Department of Psychology, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos.

Methods: The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables.

Results: Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US-age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus