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Transcriptional Profiling of Ileocecal Valve of Holstein Dairy Cows Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis.

Hempel RJ, Bannantine JP, Stabel JR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease.Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes.The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Johne's disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s), chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV) of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Venn diagram showing the comparison of differentially expressed genes between all group comparisons.Venn diagram showing the number of DE genes in each group comparison as well as the numbers of genes that are up- (↑) or down-regulated (↓) in each dataset.
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pone.0153932.g003: Venn diagram showing the comparison of differentially expressed genes between all group comparisons.Venn diagram showing the number of DE genes in each group comparison as well as the numbers of genes that are up- (↑) or down-regulated (↓) in each dataset.

Mentions: A systematic comparison was performed between each of the groups of animals based on their disease status. Statistical analysis of all expressed genes resulted in 823, 242, or 230 DE genes (FDR threshold of ≤ 0.05) in the group comparisons between uninfected control and clinical cows, subclinical and clinical cows, and uninfected control and subclinical cows, respectively (Fig 3). These comparisons also resulted in many DE genes that are common between two different groups, as well as a total of eight genes that are common amongst all groups. All DE genes were further subdivided into groups depending upon the direction of their regulation (up- or down-regulated). It is important to note that in each of the group comparisons, there were markedly more up-regulated genes compared to down-regulated genes, suggesting that MAP infection results in increased transcriptional activity rather than inhibition of transcriptional activity.


Transcriptional Profiling of Ileocecal Valve of Holstein Dairy Cows Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis.

Hempel RJ, Bannantine JP, Stabel JR - PLoS ONE (2016)

Venn diagram showing the comparison of differentially expressed genes between all group comparisons.Venn diagram showing the number of DE genes in each group comparison as well as the numbers of genes that are up- (↑) or down-regulated (↓) in each dataset.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836751&req=5

pone.0153932.g003: Venn diagram showing the comparison of differentially expressed genes between all group comparisons.Venn diagram showing the number of DE genes in each group comparison as well as the numbers of genes that are up- (↑) or down-regulated (↓) in each dataset.
Mentions: A systematic comparison was performed between each of the groups of animals based on their disease status. Statistical analysis of all expressed genes resulted in 823, 242, or 230 DE genes (FDR threshold of ≤ 0.05) in the group comparisons between uninfected control and clinical cows, subclinical and clinical cows, and uninfected control and subclinical cows, respectively (Fig 3). These comparisons also resulted in many DE genes that are common between two different groups, as well as a total of eight genes that are common amongst all groups. All DE genes were further subdivided into groups depending upon the direction of their regulation (up- or down-regulated). It is important to note that in each of the group comparisons, there were markedly more up-regulated genes compared to down-regulated genes, suggesting that MAP infection results in increased transcriptional activity rather than inhibition of transcriptional activity.

Bottom Line: The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease.Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes.The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Johne's disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s), chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV) of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus