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Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

Valdovinos-Flores C, Gaspar-Ramírez O, Heras-Ramírez ME, Lara-Álvarez C, Dorantes-Ugalde JA, Saldaña-Loza LM - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas.On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan.The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental/ Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas/ Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México.

ABSTRACT
In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BAA Trap.(a) trap case: black to offer protection against light, dimensions 125 × 143 × 12 mm and with windows of 3.0 × 40.0 mm to prevent access by bees, (b) prepared bait, (b) four snaps for sealing, and (d) scale.
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pone.0153551.g001: BAA Trap.(a) trap case: black to offer protection against light, dimensions 125 × 143 × 12 mm and with windows of 3.0 × 40.0 mm to prevent access by bees, (b) prepared bait, (b) four snaps for sealing, and (d) scale.

Mentions: As shown in Fig 1, the BAA trap looks like a conventional CD case with windows of 3.0 × 40.0 mm allowing the pass of specimens of A. tumida but preventing access by bees. The trap is reinforced by four snaps for sealing, and it is black for offering a place against the light. The 2g of the bait placed inside the trap contains: 50% boric acid (Searles Valley Minerals), 17% shortening (INCA, ACH Foods, Mexico), 0.5% live yeast (Lessafrer, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Meyen ex EC Hansen]), 0.5% sugar, and 32% of chopped fresh pineapple chunks. The attractant is very important in the BAA trap and it was chosen according to the following criteria [10]: (i) A. tumida usually eats hive food sources but it can also survive with alternative food such as mango, banana, grapes, avocado, pineapple, melon, and star fruit [14, 15]; and (ii) there is a mutual relationship between A. tumida and the yeast Kodamaea ohmeri lodged in the digestive tract. This yeast is excreted in the feces of the insect causing fermentation of pollen and honey in infested hives. The fermentation releases compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida[16]. The fermentation process attracts beetles, thus populations are concentrated in areas with higher food availability for optimizing their reproduction.


Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

Valdovinos-Flores C, Gaspar-Ramírez O, Heras-Ramírez ME, Lara-Álvarez C, Dorantes-Ugalde JA, Saldaña-Loza LM - PLoS ONE (2016)

BAA Trap.(a) trap case: black to offer protection against light, dimensions 125 × 143 × 12 mm and with windows of 3.0 × 40.0 mm to prevent access by bees, (b) prepared bait, (b) four snaps for sealing, and (d) scale.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836730&req=5

pone.0153551.g001: BAA Trap.(a) trap case: black to offer protection against light, dimensions 125 × 143 × 12 mm and with windows of 3.0 × 40.0 mm to prevent access by bees, (b) prepared bait, (b) four snaps for sealing, and (d) scale.
Mentions: As shown in Fig 1, the BAA trap looks like a conventional CD case with windows of 3.0 × 40.0 mm allowing the pass of specimens of A. tumida but preventing access by bees. The trap is reinforced by four snaps for sealing, and it is black for offering a place against the light. The 2g of the bait placed inside the trap contains: 50% boric acid (Searles Valley Minerals), 17% shortening (INCA, ACH Foods, Mexico), 0.5% live yeast (Lessafrer, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Meyen ex EC Hansen]), 0.5% sugar, and 32% of chopped fresh pineapple chunks. The attractant is very important in the BAA trap and it was chosen according to the following criteria [10]: (i) A. tumida usually eats hive food sources but it can also survive with alternative food such as mango, banana, grapes, avocado, pineapple, melon, and star fruit [14, 15]; and (ii) there is a mutual relationship between A. tumida and the yeast Kodamaea ohmeri lodged in the digestive tract. This yeast is excreted in the feces of the insect causing fermentation of pollen and honey in infested hives. The fermentation releases compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida[16]. The fermentation process attracts beetles, thus populations are concentrated in areas with higher food availability for optimizing their reproduction.

Bottom Line: The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas.On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan.The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental/ Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas/ Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México.

ABSTRACT
In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus