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Glycogen Levels in Undiluted Genital Fluid and Their Relationship to Vaginal pH, Estrogen, and Progesterone.

Mirmonsef P, Hotton AL, Gilbert D, Gioia CJ, Maric D, Hope TJ, Landay AL, Spear GT - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: In multivariable analysis, free glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively).Estrogen, glucose, age, sexual intercourse 24 hours prior to visit, and days after the initial visit were not significantly associated with free glycogen levels.However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology/Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Colonization of the female lower genital tract with Lactobacillus provides protection against STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Growth of genital Lactobacillus is postulated to depend on epithelial cell-produced glycogen. However, the amount of cell-free glycogen in genital fluid available for utilization by Lactobacillus is not known.

Methods: Eighty-five genital fluid samples from 7 pre-menopausal women taken over 4-6 weeks were obtained using the Instead SoftCup® (EvoFem, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by consented donors. Cell-free glycogen and glucose in genital fluids and estrogen and progesterone in blood were quantified.

Findings: Glycogen ranged from 0.1-32 μg/μl. There were significant differences between women in glycogen over the observation period. There was a strong negative correlation between glycogen and vaginal pH (r = -0.542, p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, free glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Estrogen, glucose, age, sexual intercourse 24 hours prior to visit, and days after the initial visit were not significantly associated with free glycogen levels.

Conclusion: Cell-free glycogen concentrations can be very high, up to 3% of genital fluid, and are strongly associated with acidic vaginal pH. However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Longitudinal vaginal pH, serum estrogen and progesterone.Vaginal pH (A) was determined utilizing a sterile pH probe as described in Methods. Blood was drawn from the seven subjects shown in Fig 1. Serum levels of estrogen (B) and progesterone (C) were measured by ELISA.
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pone.0153553.g002: Longitudinal vaginal pH, serum estrogen and progesterone.Vaginal pH (A) was determined utilizing a sterile pH probe as described in Methods. Blood was drawn from the seven subjects shown in Fig 1. Serum levels of estrogen (B) and progesterone (C) were measured by ELISA.

Mentions: Vaginal pH was measured at 79 of the visits as an indicator of the bacterial microbiota (Fig 2A). A vaginal pH cutoff of 4.5 is used clinically with a pH greater than 4.5 indicative of dysbiosis [8]. pH levels overall (N = 79) ranged from 3.4 to 7.9 with a median of 4.6 and mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 1.2. Visits with a pH < 4.5 had significantly higher levels of glycogen than visits with a pH ≥ 4.5 (median 5.2 μg/μl vs. 0.8 μg/μl, p = 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). Also, there was a relatively strong negative correlation between pH and glycogen (N = 67, r = -0.542, p < 0.0001).


Glycogen Levels in Undiluted Genital Fluid and Their Relationship to Vaginal pH, Estrogen, and Progesterone.

Mirmonsef P, Hotton AL, Gilbert D, Gioia CJ, Maric D, Hope TJ, Landay AL, Spear GT - PLoS ONE (2016)

Longitudinal vaginal pH, serum estrogen and progesterone.Vaginal pH (A) was determined utilizing a sterile pH probe as described in Methods. Blood was drawn from the seven subjects shown in Fig 1. Serum levels of estrogen (B) and progesterone (C) were measured by ELISA.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836725&req=5

pone.0153553.g002: Longitudinal vaginal pH, serum estrogen and progesterone.Vaginal pH (A) was determined utilizing a sterile pH probe as described in Methods. Blood was drawn from the seven subjects shown in Fig 1. Serum levels of estrogen (B) and progesterone (C) were measured by ELISA.
Mentions: Vaginal pH was measured at 79 of the visits as an indicator of the bacterial microbiota (Fig 2A). A vaginal pH cutoff of 4.5 is used clinically with a pH greater than 4.5 indicative of dysbiosis [8]. pH levels overall (N = 79) ranged from 3.4 to 7.9 with a median of 4.6 and mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 1.2. Visits with a pH < 4.5 had significantly higher levels of glycogen than visits with a pH ≥ 4.5 (median 5.2 μg/μl vs. 0.8 μg/μl, p = 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). Also, there was a relatively strong negative correlation between pH and glycogen (N = 67, r = -0.542, p < 0.0001).

Bottom Line: In multivariable analysis, free glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively).Estrogen, glucose, age, sexual intercourse 24 hours prior to visit, and days after the initial visit were not significantly associated with free glycogen levels.However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology/Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Colonization of the female lower genital tract with Lactobacillus provides protection against STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Growth of genital Lactobacillus is postulated to depend on epithelial cell-produced glycogen. However, the amount of cell-free glycogen in genital fluid available for utilization by Lactobacillus is not known.

Methods: Eighty-five genital fluid samples from 7 pre-menopausal women taken over 4-6 weeks were obtained using the Instead SoftCup® (EvoFem, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by consented donors. Cell-free glycogen and glucose in genital fluids and estrogen and progesterone in blood were quantified.

Findings: Glycogen ranged from 0.1-32 μg/μl. There were significant differences between women in glycogen over the observation period. There was a strong negative correlation between glycogen and vaginal pH (r = -0.542, p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, free glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Estrogen, glucose, age, sexual intercourse 24 hours prior to visit, and days after the initial visit were not significantly associated with free glycogen levels.

Conclusion: Cell-free glycogen concentrations can be very high, up to 3% of genital fluid, and are strongly associated with acidic vaginal pH. However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus