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Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73).

Ramsden CE, Zamora D, Majchrzak-Hong S, Faurot KR, Broste SK, Frantz RP, Davis JM, Ringel A, Suchindran CM, Hibbeln JR - BMJ (2016)

Bottom Line: Control diet was high in saturated fat from animal fats, common margarines, and shortenings.Kaplan Meier graphs showed no mortality benefit for the intervention group in the full randomized cohort or for any prespecified subgroup.There was no evidence of benefit in the intervention group for coronary atherosclerosis or myocardial infarcts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Nutritional Neurosciences, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Chris.Ramsden@nih.gov.

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Fig 8 Linoleic acid content of MCE diets compared with current and historical intakes in US in 2011-12 (NHANES, adults aged ≥20).58 Nutritional adequacy defined as lowest amount of dietary linoleic acid required to prevent deficiency symptoms.5960 Pre-agricultural diets modeled from fatty acid compositions of hunter-gatherer diets.56 Pre-industrial US diets calculated from US Department of Agriculture economic disappearance data61
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f8: Fig 8 Linoleic acid content of MCE diets compared with current and historical intakes in US in 2011-12 (NHANES, adults aged ≥20).58 Nutritional adequacy defined as lowest amount of dietary linoleic acid required to prevent deficiency symptoms.5960 Pre-agricultural diets modeled from fatty acid compositions of hunter-gatherer diets.56 Pre-industrial US diets calculated from US Department of Agriculture economic disappearance data61

Mentions: To interpret research on linoleic acid one needs to consider both the food sources and the amounts consumed. Individuals eating only minimally processed whole foods—as everyone did until about 100 years ago—would have consumed about 2-3% of calories from linoleic acid5657 (fig 8). By contrast, among industrialized populations today, most linoleic acid intake is derived from highly concentrated vegetable oils, in which the fatty acids are separated from the fiber, protein, and micronutrients that are naturally present in vegetables and seeds61 (table H, appendix). Because these concentrated sources of linoleic acid are used widely as cooking and frying oils and added to many processed and packaged food items, the linoleic acid content of modern industrialized diets is much higher than natural diets (fig 8). For example, mean linoleic acid intake in the US of about 17 g a day (7% of calories)58 is much higher than the approximately 6 g of daily linoleic acid provided by natural food diets without added vegetable oils. If these concentrated sources are considered to be dietary supplements, on average Americans ingest the equivalent of 11 capsules of 1 g linoleic acid a day above and beyond intake from natural foods.


Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73).

Ramsden CE, Zamora D, Majchrzak-Hong S, Faurot KR, Broste SK, Frantz RP, Davis JM, Ringel A, Suchindran CM, Hibbeln JR - BMJ (2016)

Fig 8 Linoleic acid content of MCE diets compared with current and historical intakes in US in 2011-12 (NHANES, adults aged ≥20).58 Nutritional adequacy defined as lowest amount of dietary linoleic acid required to prevent deficiency symptoms.5960 Pre-agricultural diets modeled from fatty acid compositions of hunter-gatherer diets.56 Pre-industrial US diets calculated from US Department of Agriculture economic disappearance data61
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836695&req=5

f8: Fig 8 Linoleic acid content of MCE diets compared with current and historical intakes in US in 2011-12 (NHANES, adults aged ≥20).58 Nutritional adequacy defined as lowest amount of dietary linoleic acid required to prevent deficiency symptoms.5960 Pre-agricultural diets modeled from fatty acid compositions of hunter-gatherer diets.56 Pre-industrial US diets calculated from US Department of Agriculture economic disappearance data61
Mentions: To interpret research on linoleic acid one needs to consider both the food sources and the amounts consumed. Individuals eating only minimally processed whole foods—as everyone did until about 100 years ago—would have consumed about 2-3% of calories from linoleic acid5657 (fig 8). By contrast, among industrialized populations today, most linoleic acid intake is derived from highly concentrated vegetable oils, in which the fatty acids are separated from the fiber, protein, and micronutrients that are naturally present in vegetables and seeds61 (table H, appendix). Because these concentrated sources of linoleic acid are used widely as cooking and frying oils and added to many processed and packaged food items, the linoleic acid content of modern industrialized diets is much higher than natural diets (fig 8). For example, mean linoleic acid intake in the US of about 17 g a day (7% of calories)58 is much higher than the approximately 6 g of daily linoleic acid provided by natural food diets without added vegetable oils. If these concentrated sources are considered to be dietary supplements, on average Americans ingest the equivalent of 11 capsules of 1 g linoleic acid a day above and beyond intake from natural foods.

Bottom Line: Control diet was high in saturated fat from animal fats, common margarines, and shortenings.Kaplan Meier graphs showed no mortality benefit for the intervention group in the full randomized cohort or for any prespecified subgroup.There was no evidence of benefit in the intervention group for coronary atherosclerosis or myocardial infarcts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section on Nutritional Neurosciences, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Chris.Ramsden@nih.gov.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus