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Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fitness benefits of varying levels of parental care.Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the origin of parental care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the maintenance of care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, Am = 0–1.
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pone.0153839.g005: Fitness benefits of varying levels of parental care.Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the origin of parental care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the maintenance of care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, Am = 0–1.

Mentions: For both the origin and maintenance of care scenarios, and for cases of either density dependent egg or adult mortality, intermediate levels of parental care result in the greatest fitness benefits (Fig 5A–5D). Indeed, relatively low and high levels of care will result in the smallest fitness benefits across scenarios (Fig 5). This pattern likely occurs because we assume non-linear benefits of care (i.e. the benefits of care in terms of decreased egg death rate depreciate in magnitude as care increases) and non-linear costs of care (i.e. the costs of care in terms of increased parental death rate and reduced reproduction begin to plateau as the level of care increases).


Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

Fitness benefits of varying levels of parental care.Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the origin of parental care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the maintenance of care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, Am = 0–1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836686&req=5

pone.0153839.g005: Fitness benefits of varying levels of parental care.Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the origin of parental care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. Intermediate levels of care are favoured for the maintenance of care when (A) egg death rate and (B) adult death rate are density dependent. dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, Am = 0–1.
Mentions: For both the origin and maintenance of care scenarios, and for cases of either density dependent egg or adult mortality, intermediate levels of parental care result in the greatest fitness benefits (Fig 5A–5D). Indeed, relatively low and high levels of care will result in the smallest fitness benefits across scenarios (Fig 5). This pattern likely occurs because we assume non-linear benefits of care (i.e. the benefits of care in terms of decreased egg death rate depreciate in magnitude as care increases) and non-linear costs of care (i.e. the costs of care in terms of increased parental death rate and reduced reproduction begin to plateau as the level of care increases).

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus