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Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fitness benefits of the origin of parental care in relation to egg and juvenile development.When egg death rate is density dependent (A), the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively high, whereas when adult death rate is density dependent (B), the fitness benefit of care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively low. However, in both cases (A-B) the slope of this relationship is close to zero, and as such, egg maturation rate has minimal effects on the fitness benefits of care. When egg death rate (C) and adult death rate (D) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when the juvenile stage is relatively short. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
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pone.0153839.g003: Fitness benefits of the origin of parental care in relation to egg and juvenile development.When egg death rate is density dependent (A), the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively high, whereas when adult death rate is density dependent (B), the fitness benefit of care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively low. However, in both cases (A-B) the slope of this relationship is close to zero, and as such, egg maturation rate has minimal effects on the fitness benefits of care. When egg death rate (C) and adult death rate (D) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when the juvenile stage is relatively short. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.

Mentions: When density dependence acts on egg death rate, the fitness benefit associated with the origin of care is highest when egg maturation rate is large (Fig 3A), whereas when density dependence acts on adult death rate fitness is highest when egg maturation rate is lowest (Fig 3B). However, these effects are relatively small (Fig 3A and 3B), and as such, egg maturation rate has relatively little effect on the fitness associated with the origin of care.


Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

Fitness benefits of the origin of parental care in relation to egg and juvenile development.When egg death rate is density dependent (A), the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively high, whereas when adult death rate is density dependent (B), the fitness benefit of care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively low. However, in both cases (A-B) the slope of this relationship is close to zero, and as such, egg maturation rate has minimal effects on the fitness benefits of care. When egg death rate (C) and adult death rate (D) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when the juvenile stage is relatively short. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836686&req=5

pone.0153839.g003: Fitness benefits of the origin of parental care in relation to egg and juvenile development.When egg death rate is density dependent (A), the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively high, whereas when adult death rate is density dependent (B), the fitness benefit of care is highest when egg maturation rate is relatively low. However, in both cases (A-B) the slope of this relationship is close to zero, and as such, egg maturation rate has minimal effects on the fitness benefits of care. When egg death rate (C) and adult death rate (D) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is highest when the juvenile stage is relatively short. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
Mentions: When density dependence acts on egg death rate, the fitness benefit associated with the origin of care is highest when egg maturation rate is large (Fig 3A), whereas when density dependence acts on adult death rate fitness is highest when egg maturation rate is lowest (Fig 3B). However, these effects are relatively small (Fig 3A and 3B), and as such, egg maturation rate has relatively little effect on the fitness associated with the origin of care.

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus