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Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The maintenance of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival and the density of mutant individuals.When egg death rate (A) and when adult death rate (B) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest at higher levels of baseline egg death rate when mutant density is relatively low. As density increases, the fitness benefits associated with care decrease and the fitness benefits of care become insensitive to baseline egg death rate (A-B). When density dependence acts on egg death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are highest when adult death rate is relatively low (C). When density dependence acts on adult death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are relatively insensitive to baseline adult death rate at low mutant densities (D). When density dependence acts on adult mortality and mutant density is high, the maintenance of parental care is most strongly favored at lower baseline adult death rates high (D). When mutant density is relatively high, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are greatest when juvenile survival is intermediate or relatively high regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg death rate (E) or adult mortality (F). Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
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pone.0153839.g002: The maintenance of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival and the density of mutant individuals.When egg death rate (A) and when adult death rate (B) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest at higher levels of baseline egg death rate when mutant density is relatively low. As density increases, the fitness benefits associated with care decrease and the fitness benefits of care become insensitive to baseline egg death rate (A-B). When density dependence acts on egg death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are highest when adult death rate is relatively low (C). When density dependence acts on adult death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are relatively insensitive to baseline adult death rate at low mutant densities (D). When density dependence acts on adult mortality and mutant density is high, the maintenance of parental care is most strongly favored at lower baseline adult death rates high (D). When mutant density is relatively high, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are greatest when juvenile survival is intermediate or relatively high regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg death rate (E) or adult mortality (F). Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.

Mentions: In contrast, when we focused on the maintenance, rather than the origin, of parental care, the fitness benefits associated with providing care are relatively insensitive to baseline egg death for the scenarios in which egg survival or adult survival is density dependent, particularly when mutant density is relatively high (Fig 2A and 2B). In general, under varying levels of baseline egg death rate, increases in the density of individuals exhibiting the mutant strategy (care) decrease the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care, particularly when density dependence acts on adult death rate (Fig 2A and 2B).


Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

The maintenance of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival and the density of mutant individuals.When egg death rate (A) and when adult death rate (B) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest at higher levels of baseline egg death rate when mutant density is relatively low. As density increases, the fitness benefits associated with care decrease and the fitness benefits of care become insensitive to baseline egg death rate (A-B). When density dependence acts on egg death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are highest when adult death rate is relatively low (C). When density dependence acts on adult death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are relatively insensitive to baseline adult death rate at low mutant densities (D). When density dependence acts on adult mortality and mutant density is high, the maintenance of parental care is most strongly favored at lower baseline adult death rates high (D). When mutant density is relatively high, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are greatest when juvenile survival is intermediate or relatively high regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg death rate (E) or adult mortality (F). Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836686&req=5

pone.0153839.g002: The maintenance of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival and the density of mutant individuals.When egg death rate (A) and when adult death rate (B) are density dependent, the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest at higher levels of baseline egg death rate when mutant density is relatively low. As density increases, the fitness benefits associated with care decrease and the fitness benefits of care become insensitive to baseline egg death rate (A-B). When density dependence acts on egg death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are highest when adult death rate is relatively low (C). When density dependence acts on adult death rate, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are relatively insensitive to baseline adult death rate at low mutant densities (D). When density dependence acts on adult mortality and mutant density is high, the maintenance of parental care is most strongly favored at lower baseline adult death rates high (D). When mutant density is relatively high, the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care are greatest when juvenile survival is intermediate or relatively high regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg death rate (E) or adult mortality (F). Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
Mentions: In contrast, when we focused on the maintenance, rather than the origin, of parental care, the fitness benefits associated with providing care are relatively insensitive to baseline egg death for the scenarios in which egg survival or adult survival is density dependent, particularly when mutant density is relatively high (Fig 2A and 2B). In general, under varying levels of baseline egg death rate, increases in the density of individuals exhibiting the mutant strategy (care) decrease the fitness benefits associated with the maintenance of care, particularly when density dependence acts on adult death rate (Fig 2A and 2B).

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus