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Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The origin of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival.When egg death rate is density-dependent (A) and when adult death rate is density dependent (B) the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline egg death rate (i.e. egg death rate before any care is accounted for) is relatively high. When egg death rate is density dependent (C), the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline adult death rate is relatively low. However, when the adult death rate is density dependent (D), there is no relationship between the fitness of care and baseline adult death rate. When egg death rate is density-dependent (E) and when adult death rate is density-dependent (F), the fitness benefit associated with care is unrelated to juvenile survival. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
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pone.0153839.g001: The origin of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival.When egg death rate is density-dependent (A) and when adult death rate is density dependent (B) the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline egg death rate (i.e. egg death rate before any care is accounted for) is relatively high. When egg death rate is density dependent (C), the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline adult death rate is relatively low. However, when the adult death rate is density dependent (D), there is no relationship between the fitness of care and baseline adult death rate. When egg death rate is density-dependent (E) and when adult death rate is density-dependent (F), the fitness benefit associated with care is unrelated to juvenile survival. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.

Mentions: Whether density dependence acts on egg or adult death rate influences the life-history conditions under which parental care is expected to originate and be maintained in some, but not all, cases (Figs 1–4). Below, we outline the life-history conditions that favor the origin and maintenance of care, and we describe differences that arise when density-dependence acts on egg versus adult survival. We first focus on life-history traits associated with survival (i.e. egg, adult and juvenile survival) and then describe the patterns related to egg and juvenile maturation.


Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

Reyes E, Thrasher P, Bonsall MB, Klug H - PLoS ONE (2016)

The origin of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival.When egg death rate is density-dependent (A) and when adult death rate is density dependent (B) the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline egg death rate (i.e. egg death rate before any care is accounted for) is relatively high. When egg death rate is density dependent (C), the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline adult death rate is relatively low. However, when the adult death rate is density dependent (D), there is no relationship between the fitness of care and baseline adult death rate. When egg death rate is density-dependent (E) and when adult death rate is density-dependent (F), the fitness benefit associated with care is unrelated to juvenile survival. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836686&req=5

pone.0153839.g001: The origin of parental care in relation to egg, adult, and juvenile survival.When egg death rate is density-dependent (A) and when adult death rate is density dependent (B) the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline egg death rate (i.e. egg death rate before any care is accounted for) is relatively high. When egg death rate is density dependent (C), the fitness benefit associated with care is greatest when baseline adult death rate is relatively low. However, when the adult death rate is density dependent (D), there is no relationship between the fitness of care and baseline adult death rate. When egg death rate is density-dependent (E) and when adult death rate is density-dependent (F), the fitness benefit associated with care is unrelated to juvenile survival. Unless otherwise noted, dE 0 = dE m0 = 10, mE = mE m = 0.1, r0 = rm0 = 10,000, dA0 = dAm0 = 10, σJ0 = σJm0 = 0.01, τ = 0.1, c = 0.9.
Mentions: Whether density dependence acts on egg or adult death rate influences the life-history conditions under which parental care is expected to originate and be maintained in some, but not all, cases (Figs 1–4). Below, we outline the life-history conditions that favor the origin and maintenance of care, and we describe differences that arise when density-dependence acts on egg versus adult survival. We first focus on life-history traits associated with survival (i.e. egg, adult and juvenile survival) and then describe the patterns related to egg and juvenile maturation.

Bottom Line: Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent.In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high.Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus