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Evolution of Pre- and Post-Copulatory Traits in Male Drosophila melanogaster as a Correlated Response to Selection for Resistance to Cold Stress.

Singh K, Samant MA, Tom MT, Prasad NG - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits.Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior.Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, PO Manauli, Punjab, 140306, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits. Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior. Therefore, it is expected that the adaptation to cold stress will involve changes in pre- and post-copulatory traits. Such evolution of reproductive traits in response to cold stress is not well studied.

Methods: We selected replicate populations of D. melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. Over 37-46 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits such as mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency, male fertility, fitness (progeny production) and sperm competitive ability in male flies subjected to cold shock and those not subjected to cold shock.

Results: We found that post cold shock, the males from the selected populations had a significantly lower mating latency along with, higher mating frequency, fertility, sperm competitive ability and number of progeny relative to the control populations.

Conclusion: While most studies of experimental evolution of cold stress resistance have documented the evolution of survivorship in response to selection, our study clearly shows that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid changes in the pre- and post-copulatory traits. Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of cold shock (A and B) or no shock (C) on progeny production. Closed bars represent FCB and open bars represent FSB populations. (A) Number of progeny produced by (ancestral) BRB females exposed to FSB or FCB males subjected to cold shock and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and day had significant effect on the progeny production. (B) The proportion of ancestral females which had produced progeny after being exposed to FSB or FCB males that were cold shocked and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and period had significant effect on the proportion of females that produce zero progeny after being exposed to cold shocked male. However, two way interaction of selection × period was not significant. (C) Under no shock treatment, there was no significant difference in the number of progeny sired by FSB and FCB males when exposed to ancestral BRB females.
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pone.0153629.g005: Effect of cold shock (A and B) or no shock (C) on progeny production. Closed bars represent FCB and open bars represent FSB populations. (A) Number of progeny produced by (ancestral) BRB females exposed to FSB or FCB males subjected to cold shock and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and day had significant effect on the progeny production. (B) The proportion of ancestral females which had produced progeny after being exposed to FSB or FCB males that were cold shocked and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and period had significant effect on the proportion of females that produce zero progeny after being exposed to cold shocked male. However, two way interaction of selection × period was not significant. (C) Under no shock treatment, there was no significant difference in the number of progeny sired by FSB and FCB males when exposed to ancestral BRB females.

Mentions: The number of progeny produced by females was measured separately for two days (day one fitness and day two fitness). We found that selection and period had a significant effect on female progeny production (Table 3, Fig 5A). Females mated with FSB population males had a significantly higher progeny production compared to females mated with FCB population males. Period had a significant effect on female progeny production. Progeny production increased with the time of recovery. Ancestral females mated to males that had recovered for 4 hours following cold shock had significantly lower progeny production comparative to females mated to males that had recovered for 12 hours post cold shock. Females produced more progeny on day one compared to day two, but the difference was not significant. None of the interactions were significant (Table 3, Fig 5A).


Evolution of Pre- and Post-Copulatory Traits in Male Drosophila melanogaster as a Correlated Response to Selection for Resistance to Cold Stress.

Singh K, Samant MA, Tom MT, Prasad NG - PLoS ONE (2016)

Effect of cold shock (A and B) or no shock (C) on progeny production. Closed bars represent FCB and open bars represent FSB populations. (A) Number of progeny produced by (ancestral) BRB females exposed to FSB or FCB males subjected to cold shock and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and day had significant effect on the progeny production. (B) The proportion of ancestral females which had produced progeny after being exposed to FSB or FCB males that were cold shocked and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and period had significant effect on the proportion of females that produce zero progeny after being exposed to cold shocked male. However, two way interaction of selection × period was not significant. (C) Under no shock treatment, there was no significant difference in the number of progeny sired by FSB and FCB males when exposed to ancestral BRB females.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836659&req=5

pone.0153629.g005: Effect of cold shock (A and B) or no shock (C) on progeny production. Closed bars represent FCB and open bars represent FSB populations. (A) Number of progeny produced by (ancestral) BRB females exposed to FSB or FCB males subjected to cold shock and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and day had significant effect on the progeny production. (B) The proportion of ancestral females which had produced progeny after being exposed to FSB or FCB males that were cold shocked and allowed to recover for 4 or 12 hours. Selection and period had significant effect on the proportion of females that produce zero progeny after being exposed to cold shocked male. However, two way interaction of selection × period was not significant. (C) Under no shock treatment, there was no significant difference in the number of progeny sired by FSB and FCB males when exposed to ancestral BRB females.
Mentions: The number of progeny produced by females was measured separately for two days (day one fitness and day two fitness). We found that selection and period had a significant effect on female progeny production (Table 3, Fig 5A). Females mated with FSB population males had a significantly higher progeny production compared to females mated with FCB population males. Period had a significant effect on female progeny production. Progeny production increased with the time of recovery. Ancestral females mated to males that had recovered for 4 hours following cold shock had significantly lower progeny production comparative to females mated to males that had recovered for 12 hours post cold shock. Females produced more progeny on day one compared to day two, but the difference was not significant. None of the interactions were significant (Table 3, Fig 5A).

Bottom Line: In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits.Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior.Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, PO Manauli, Punjab, 140306, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits. Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior. Therefore, it is expected that the adaptation to cold stress will involve changes in pre- and post-copulatory traits. Such evolution of reproductive traits in response to cold stress is not well studied.

Methods: We selected replicate populations of D. melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. Over 37-46 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits such as mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency, male fertility, fitness (progeny production) and sperm competitive ability in male flies subjected to cold shock and those not subjected to cold shock.

Results: We found that post cold shock, the males from the selected populations had a significantly lower mating latency along with, higher mating frequency, fertility, sperm competitive ability and number of progeny relative to the control populations.

Conclusion: While most studies of experimental evolution of cold stress resistance have documented the evolution of survivorship in response to selection, our study clearly shows that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid changes in the pre- and post-copulatory traits. Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus