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Nanotechnology in Dental Sciences: Moving towards a Finer Way of Doing Dentistry.

Uskoković V, Bertassoni LE - Materials (Basel) (2010)

Bottom Line: Here, we present a dynamic view of dental tissues, an adoption of which may lead to finer, more effective and minimally invasive reparation approaches.By doing so, we aim at providing insights into some of the breakthroughs relevant to understanding the genesis of dental tissues at the nanostructural level or generating dental materials with nanoscale critical boundaries.We conclude by claiming that dentistry should follow the trend of probing matter at nanoscale that currently dominates both materials and biological sciences in order to improve on the research strategies and clinical techniques that have traditionally rested on mechanistic assumptions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnologies are predicted to revolutionize: (a) the control over materials properties at ultrafine scales; and (b) the sensitivity of tools and devices applied in various scientific and technological fields. In this short review, we argue that dentistry will be no exception to this trend. Here, we present a dynamic view of dental tissues, an adoption of which may lead to finer, more effective and minimally invasive reparation approaches. By doing so, we aim at providing insights into some of the breakthroughs relevant to understanding the genesis of dental tissues at the nanostructural level or generating dental materials with nanoscale critical boundaries. The lineage of the progress of dental science, including the projected path along the presumed nanotechnological direction of research and clinical application is mentioned too. We conclude by claiming that dentistry should follow the trend of probing matter at nanoscale that currently dominates both materials and biological sciences in order to improve on the research strategies and clinical techniques that have traditionally rested on mechanistic assumptions.

No MeSH data available.


From left to right: SEM image of a fixed, demineralized dentin matrix showing the collagen fibrils. In the schematic on the left, collagen fibrils show the extrafibrillar mineral between fibrils. In the next schematic to the right, the collagen molecules show the 40 nm gap zones and 27 nm overlap zones resulting in the typical 67 nm periodicity of a collagen fibril. The length of the collagen protein triple helix is 300 nm. On the upper right, the intrafibrillar mineral is represented sitting in the gap region between the collagen molecules. The lower middle schematic shows noncollagenous proteins linking collagen fibrils and isolated on the far right. Figure not drawn to scale. Modified from Bertassoni et al. [7].
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Figure 2: From left to right: SEM image of a fixed, demineralized dentin matrix showing the collagen fibrils. In the schematic on the left, collagen fibrils show the extrafibrillar mineral between fibrils. In the next schematic to the right, the collagen molecules show the 40 nm gap zones and 27 nm overlap zones resulting in the typical 67 nm periodicity of a collagen fibril. The length of the collagen protein triple helix is 300 nm. On the upper right, the intrafibrillar mineral is represented sitting in the gap region between the collagen molecules. The lower middle schematic shows noncollagenous proteins linking collagen fibrils and isolated on the far right. Figure not drawn to scale. Modified from Bertassoni et al. [7].

Mentions: The microstructure of dentin, a composite mineralized tissue, suggests the necessity of a hierarchical approach to the understanding of its mechanical properties [10, 37]. The dentin matrix (Figure 2) is mainly composed of type I collagen fibrils with associated noncollagenous proteins, forming a three-dimensional organic scaffold that is reinforced by mineral. The mineral is a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite that is partitioned according to its location with respect to the collagen fibrils into: extrafibrillar mineral, which is located in the spaces separating the collagen fibrils [38–40], and intrafibrillar mineral, which is mainly in the gap regions of the fibrils extending between tropocollagen molecules [41–43]. There is uncertainty over the specific morphology of the mineral crystallites. Kinney et al. [44] performed a small-angle X-ray scattering analysis on the apatite crystallites in dentin and suggested that the mineral particles are of rod-like shapes near the pulp and are more plate-like shaped, with approximately 5 nm in thickness, near the dentin-enamel junction. Similarly, transmission electron microcoscopy (TEM) investigations [45] confirmed early observations by Boyde [46], indicating the presence of needle-like crystallites in the intertubular dentin region. On the other hand, Lowenstam and Weiner [47], also using TEM, evaluated the ultrastructure of crystallites in bone (which is associated with a similar model of mineralization) after the removal of its organic structures and suggested that the average length and width of the crystallites are 50 and 25 nm, respectively, with an approximate thickness of approximately 2 nm, resembling plate-like structures. It is noteworthy that the current concepts of restorative dentistry ignore most of the recent findings that elucidate the structure and function of dentin at a nanometer scale, which suggests that the modernity of the technologies currently used may be brought into question.


Nanotechnology in Dental Sciences: Moving towards a Finer Way of Doing Dentistry.

Uskoković V, Bertassoni LE - Materials (Basel) (2010)

From left to right: SEM image of a fixed, demineralized dentin matrix showing the collagen fibrils. In the schematic on the left, collagen fibrils show the extrafibrillar mineral between fibrils. In the next schematic to the right, the collagen molecules show the 40 nm gap zones and 27 nm overlap zones resulting in the typical 67 nm periodicity of a collagen fibril. The length of the collagen protein triple helix is 300 nm. On the upper right, the intrafibrillar mineral is represented sitting in the gap region between the collagen molecules. The lower middle schematic shows noncollagenous proteins linking collagen fibrils and isolated on the far right. Figure not drawn to scale. Modified from Bertassoni et al. [7].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836616&req=5

Figure 2: From left to right: SEM image of a fixed, demineralized dentin matrix showing the collagen fibrils. In the schematic on the left, collagen fibrils show the extrafibrillar mineral between fibrils. In the next schematic to the right, the collagen molecules show the 40 nm gap zones and 27 nm overlap zones resulting in the typical 67 nm periodicity of a collagen fibril. The length of the collagen protein triple helix is 300 nm. On the upper right, the intrafibrillar mineral is represented sitting in the gap region between the collagen molecules. The lower middle schematic shows noncollagenous proteins linking collagen fibrils and isolated on the far right. Figure not drawn to scale. Modified from Bertassoni et al. [7].
Mentions: The microstructure of dentin, a composite mineralized tissue, suggests the necessity of a hierarchical approach to the understanding of its mechanical properties [10, 37]. The dentin matrix (Figure 2) is mainly composed of type I collagen fibrils with associated noncollagenous proteins, forming a three-dimensional organic scaffold that is reinforced by mineral. The mineral is a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite that is partitioned according to its location with respect to the collagen fibrils into: extrafibrillar mineral, which is located in the spaces separating the collagen fibrils [38–40], and intrafibrillar mineral, which is mainly in the gap regions of the fibrils extending between tropocollagen molecules [41–43]. There is uncertainty over the specific morphology of the mineral crystallites. Kinney et al. [44] performed a small-angle X-ray scattering analysis on the apatite crystallites in dentin and suggested that the mineral particles are of rod-like shapes near the pulp and are more plate-like shaped, with approximately 5 nm in thickness, near the dentin-enamel junction. Similarly, transmission electron microcoscopy (TEM) investigations [45] confirmed early observations by Boyde [46], indicating the presence of needle-like crystallites in the intertubular dentin region. On the other hand, Lowenstam and Weiner [47], also using TEM, evaluated the ultrastructure of crystallites in bone (which is associated with a similar model of mineralization) after the removal of its organic structures and suggested that the average length and width of the crystallites are 50 and 25 nm, respectively, with an approximate thickness of approximately 2 nm, resembling plate-like structures. It is noteworthy that the current concepts of restorative dentistry ignore most of the recent findings that elucidate the structure and function of dentin at a nanometer scale, which suggests that the modernity of the technologies currently used may be brought into question.

Bottom Line: Here, we present a dynamic view of dental tissues, an adoption of which may lead to finer, more effective and minimally invasive reparation approaches.By doing so, we aim at providing insights into some of the breakthroughs relevant to understanding the genesis of dental tissues at the nanostructural level or generating dental materials with nanoscale critical boundaries.We conclude by claiming that dentistry should follow the trend of probing matter at nanoscale that currently dominates both materials and biological sciences in order to improve on the research strategies and clinical techniques that have traditionally rested on mechanistic assumptions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnologies are predicted to revolutionize: (a) the control over materials properties at ultrafine scales; and (b) the sensitivity of tools and devices applied in various scientific and technological fields. In this short review, we argue that dentistry will be no exception to this trend. Here, we present a dynamic view of dental tissues, an adoption of which may lead to finer, more effective and minimally invasive reparation approaches. By doing so, we aim at providing insights into some of the breakthroughs relevant to understanding the genesis of dental tissues at the nanostructural level or generating dental materials with nanoscale critical boundaries. The lineage of the progress of dental science, including the projected path along the presumed nanotechnological direction of research and clinical application is mentioned too. We conclude by claiming that dentistry should follow the trend of probing matter at nanoscale that currently dominates both materials and biological sciences in order to improve on the research strategies and clinical techniques that have traditionally rested on mechanistic assumptions.

No MeSH data available.