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Extracellular vesicles of the blood-brain barrier.

András IE, Toborek M - Tissue Barriers (2015)

Bottom Line: While there are a lot of reports on ECV/exosomes derived from a variety of cell types, there is limited information on ECV/exosomes originated from brain microvascular endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB).In this review, we summarize the literature data on brain endothelial ECV/exosomes and present our own data on BBB-derived ECV and their possible involvement in the brain's Aβ pathology.We propose that ECV/exosome release from brain endothelial cells associated with Aβ affects different cells of the neurovascular unit and may be an important contributor to the Aβ deposition in the central nervous system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; University of Miami School of Medicine ; Miami, FL USA.

ABSTRACT
Extracellular vesicles (ECV), like exosomes, gained recently a lot of attention as potentially playing a significant role in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in Aβ pathology. While there are a lot of reports on ECV/exosomes derived from a variety of cell types, there is limited information on ECV/exosomes originated from brain microvascular endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this review, we summarize the literature data on brain endothelial ECV/exosomes and present our own data on BBB-derived ECV and their possible involvement in the brain's Aβ pathology. We propose that ECV/exosome release from brain endothelial cells associated with Aβ affects different cells of the neurovascular unit and may be an important contributor to the Aβ deposition in the central nervous system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dynamic light scattering analysis of isolated ECV from HBMEC. HBMEC-derived ECV were isolated from the cell culture media. (A) Size distribution indicates several peaks with the sizes of 68.41 nm, 609.1 nm and 5213 nm. (B) Volume distribution: 50.1% of the volume is for particles of ~60 nm, 2.4% for particles of ~5000 nm, and 47.4% for particles with an average diameter of ~600 nm.
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f0002: Dynamic light scattering analysis of isolated ECV from HBMEC. HBMEC-derived ECV were isolated from the cell culture media. (A) Size distribution indicates several peaks with the sizes of 68.41 nm, 609.1 nm and 5213 nm. (B) Volume distribution: 50.1% of the volume is for particles of ~60 nm, 2.4% for particles of ~5000 nm, and 47.4% for particles with an average diameter of ~600 nm.

Mentions: The size and volume distribution of ECV/exosome isolates is determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. Using the described isolation techniques, the DLS measurements indicate that ECV/exosome pool is highly polydisperse and prone to aggregation. Here we present one example of such measurements. The first order result from a DLS experiment is an intensity distribution of particle sizes. Intensity distribution in this sample indicates several peaks with the sizes of 68.41 nm, 609.1 nm and 5213 nm (Fig. 2A). The intensity distribution can be converted by the software, using Mie theory, to a volume distribution or a distribution describing the relative proportion of multiple components in the sample based on their mass or volume. The conversion assumes that all particles are spherical, homogenous, with known optical properties and that there is no error in the intensity distribution. According to the relative volume percentages, the volume distribution in sample from Figure 2A indicates 3 peaks: 47.4% of the volume for particles with ~600 nm, 2.4% of the volume for particles with ~5000 nm. Interestingly, 50.1% of the total volume is made up by particles with an average diameter of ~60 nm, which is consistent with the size range of exosomes (Fig. 2B).Figure 2.


Extracellular vesicles of the blood-brain barrier.

András IE, Toborek M - Tissue Barriers (2015)

Dynamic light scattering analysis of isolated ECV from HBMEC. HBMEC-derived ECV were isolated from the cell culture media. (A) Size distribution indicates several peaks with the sizes of 68.41 nm, 609.1 nm and 5213 nm. (B) Volume distribution: 50.1% of the volume is for particles of ~60 nm, 2.4% for particles of ~5000 nm, and 47.4% for particles with an average diameter of ~600 nm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836554&req=5

f0002: Dynamic light scattering analysis of isolated ECV from HBMEC. HBMEC-derived ECV were isolated from the cell culture media. (A) Size distribution indicates several peaks with the sizes of 68.41 nm, 609.1 nm and 5213 nm. (B) Volume distribution: 50.1% of the volume is for particles of ~60 nm, 2.4% for particles of ~5000 nm, and 47.4% for particles with an average diameter of ~600 nm.
Mentions: The size and volume distribution of ECV/exosome isolates is determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. Using the described isolation techniques, the DLS measurements indicate that ECV/exosome pool is highly polydisperse and prone to aggregation. Here we present one example of such measurements. The first order result from a DLS experiment is an intensity distribution of particle sizes. Intensity distribution in this sample indicates several peaks with the sizes of 68.41 nm, 609.1 nm and 5213 nm (Fig. 2A). The intensity distribution can be converted by the software, using Mie theory, to a volume distribution or a distribution describing the relative proportion of multiple components in the sample based on their mass or volume. The conversion assumes that all particles are spherical, homogenous, with known optical properties and that there is no error in the intensity distribution. According to the relative volume percentages, the volume distribution in sample from Figure 2A indicates 3 peaks: 47.4% of the volume for particles with ~600 nm, 2.4% of the volume for particles with ~5000 nm. Interestingly, 50.1% of the total volume is made up by particles with an average diameter of ~60 nm, which is consistent with the size range of exosomes (Fig. 2B).Figure 2.

Bottom Line: While there are a lot of reports on ECV/exosomes derived from a variety of cell types, there is limited information on ECV/exosomes originated from brain microvascular endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB).In this review, we summarize the literature data on brain endothelial ECV/exosomes and present our own data on BBB-derived ECV and their possible involvement in the brain's Aβ pathology.We propose that ECV/exosome release from brain endothelial cells associated with Aβ affects different cells of the neurovascular unit and may be an important contributor to the Aβ deposition in the central nervous system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; University of Miami School of Medicine ; Miami, FL USA.

ABSTRACT
Extracellular vesicles (ECV), like exosomes, gained recently a lot of attention as potentially playing a significant role in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in Aβ pathology. While there are a lot of reports on ECV/exosomes derived from a variety of cell types, there is limited information on ECV/exosomes originated from brain microvascular endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this review, we summarize the literature data on brain endothelial ECV/exosomes and present our own data on BBB-derived ECV and their possible involvement in the brain's Aβ pathology. We propose that ECV/exosome release from brain endothelial cells associated with Aβ affects different cells of the neurovascular unit and may be an important contributor to the Aβ deposition in the central nervous system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus