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Horizontal transfer - imperative mission of acellular life forms, Acytota.

Kejnovsky E, Trifonov EN - Mob Genet Elements (2016)

Bottom Line: Acytota is a kingdom of life covering satellites, plasmids, transposable elements, viroids and viruses, all outside the conventional tree of life but satisfying most life definitions.This review focuses on some aspects of Acytota, their "genomes" and life styles, the dominance of transposable elements and their evolutionary influence on other life forms in order to vindicate the Acytota as a life kingdom no more polyphyletic than other kingdoms and its members no more parasitic than other life forms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic , Brno, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT

Acytota is a kingdom of life covering satellites, plasmids, transposable elements, viroids and viruses, all outside the conventional tree of life but satisfying most life definitions. This review focuses on some aspects of Acytota, their "genomes" and life styles, the dominance of transposable elements and their evolutionary influence on other life forms in order to vindicate the Acytota as a life kingdom no more polyphyletic than other kingdoms and its members no more parasitic than other life forms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

DNA (red) and RNA (blue) traffic inside cell and between cells during processes of endosymbiotic gene transfer (green background), retrotransposition of LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses (violet background), extrachromosomal amplification of satellite DNA and rDNA (blue background), silencing of TE by RNA interference (yellow background), transfer of plasmid DNA, infection of cell by viroid RNA and transformation of cell by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All processes can take place in one cell, 2 cells are shown here to better visualize migration of nucleic acids between cells.
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f0001: DNA (red) and RNA (blue) traffic inside cell and between cells during processes of endosymbiotic gene transfer (green background), retrotransposition of LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses (violet background), extrachromosomal amplification of satellite DNA and rDNA (blue background), silencing of TE by RNA interference (yellow background), transfer of plasmid DNA, infection of cell by viroid RNA and transformation of cell by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All processes can take place in one cell, 2 cells are shown here to better visualize migration of nucleic acids between cells.

Mentions: The spectrum of mechanisms used by replicating and propagating Acytota is broadened by non-equal crossover or DNA slippage characteristic for satellite DNA as well as by the large variability in modes utilized by DNA and RNA viruses. Satellites also probably include formation of extra-chromosomal DNA (eccDNA) as has been demonstrated in several species.6,7,5 The formation of extrachromosomal DNA circles appears to be an efficient way of amplifying repeats into high copy number and reinserting them back into homologous regions of the genome (Fig. 1). Another important recombination-based process is a gene conversion that homogenizes repeats (TEs, satellites, rDNA) and leads to their concerted evolution.29,24Figure 1.


Horizontal transfer - imperative mission of acellular life forms, Acytota.

Kejnovsky E, Trifonov EN - Mob Genet Elements (2016)

DNA (red) and RNA (blue) traffic inside cell and between cells during processes of endosymbiotic gene transfer (green background), retrotransposition of LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses (violet background), extrachromosomal amplification of satellite DNA and rDNA (blue background), silencing of TE by RNA interference (yellow background), transfer of plasmid DNA, infection of cell by viroid RNA and transformation of cell by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All processes can take place in one cell, 2 cells are shown here to better visualize migration of nucleic acids between cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836480&req=5

f0001: DNA (red) and RNA (blue) traffic inside cell and between cells during processes of endosymbiotic gene transfer (green background), retrotransposition of LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses (violet background), extrachromosomal amplification of satellite DNA and rDNA (blue background), silencing of TE by RNA interference (yellow background), transfer of plasmid DNA, infection of cell by viroid RNA and transformation of cell by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All processes can take place in one cell, 2 cells are shown here to better visualize migration of nucleic acids between cells.
Mentions: The spectrum of mechanisms used by replicating and propagating Acytota is broadened by non-equal crossover or DNA slippage characteristic for satellite DNA as well as by the large variability in modes utilized by DNA and RNA viruses. Satellites also probably include formation of extra-chromosomal DNA (eccDNA) as has been demonstrated in several species.6,7,5 The formation of extrachromosomal DNA circles appears to be an efficient way of amplifying repeats into high copy number and reinserting them back into homologous regions of the genome (Fig. 1). Another important recombination-based process is a gene conversion that homogenizes repeats (TEs, satellites, rDNA) and leads to their concerted evolution.29,24Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Acytota is a kingdom of life covering satellites, plasmids, transposable elements, viroids and viruses, all outside the conventional tree of life but satisfying most life definitions.This review focuses on some aspects of Acytota, their "genomes" and life styles, the dominance of transposable elements and their evolutionary influence on other life forms in order to vindicate the Acytota as a life kingdom no more polyphyletic than other kingdoms and its members no more parasitic than other life forms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic , Brno, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT

Acytota is a kingdom of life covering satellites, plasmids, transposable elements, viroids and viruses, all outside the conventional tree of life but satisfying most life definitions. This review focuses on some aspects of Acytota, their "genomes" and life styles, the dominance of transposable elements and their evolutionary influence on other life forms in order to vindicate the Acytota as a life kingdom no more polyphyletic than other kingdoms and its members no more parasitic than other life forms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus