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Apoptosis, autophagy and unfolded protein response pathways in Arbovirus replication and pathogenesis.

Iranpour M, Moghadam AR, Yazdi M, Ande SR, Alizadeh J, Wiechec E, Lindsay R, Drebot M, Coombs KM, Ghavami S - Expert Rev Mol Med (2016)

Bottom Line: Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern.The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation.In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens,National Microbiology Laboratory,Public Health Agency of Canada,1015 Arlington St.,Winnipeg,Manitoba,Canada.

ABSTRACT
Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses. In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes. We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Routes of transmission and human exposure to zoonotic arboviruses. Infectious agents may be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals, mechanical vectors or intermediate hosts. Arboviruses are maintained in mosquito-monkey, mosquito-rodent, mosquito-bird, mosquito-pig, mosquito-horse and mosquito-human cycles. The enzootic cycle occurs in the region where humans intrude into the natural foci of infection. The rural epizootic cycle is involved among domestic animals and mosquitos, and amplified in the presence of intermediate hosts, which result in representing a large reservoir of viruses and severe spillover effect to dead-end hosts. In urban settings, viruses are transmitted between humans and the mosquito vectors in an urban epidemic cycle, using humans for amplification (Ref. 10).
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fig01: Routes of transmission and human exposure to zoonotic arboviruses. Infectious agents may be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals, mechanical vectors or intermediate hosts. Arboviruses are maintained in mosquito-monkey, mosquito-rodent, mosquito-bird, mosquito-pig, mosquito-horse and mosquito-human cycles. The enzootic cycle occurs in the region where humans intrude into the natural foci of infection. The rural epizootic cycle is involved among domestic animals and mosquitos, and amplified in the presence of intermediate hosts, which result in representing a large reservoir of viruses and severe spillover effect to dead-end hosts. In urban settings, viruses are transmitted between humans and the mosquito vectors in an urban epidemic cycle, using humans for amplification (Ref. 10).

Mentions: Arboviruses have a global distribution but the majority circulate in tropical areas where climatic conditions are favourable for year-round transmission. Arboviruses usually circulate within enzootic cycles involving wild or domestic animals with relatively few human infections (Ref. 9). Birds and rodents are the main reservoir hosts and mosquitoes and ticks are most often the vectors for the most important arboviruses (Table 1). ‘Spill-over’ of arboviruses from enzootic cycles to humans by enzootic or ‘bridge vectors’ can occur, under the appropriate ecological conditions. For most arboviruses, humans are dead-end or incidental hosts; however, there are several viruses such as dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya that primarily infect people during outbreaks and then begin to use humans as amplification sources (Ref. 9). Figure 1 illustrates the various mechanisms by which humans are infected by zoonotic and non-zoonotic arboviruses (Ref. 10).Figure 1.


Apoptosis, autophagy and unfolded protein response pathways in Arbovirus replication and pathogenesis.

Iranpour M, Moghadam AR, Yazdi M, Ande SR, Alizadeh J, Wiechec E, Lindsay R, Drebot M, Coombs KM, Ghavami S - Expert Rev Mol Med (2016)

Routes of transmission and human exposure to zoonotic arboviruses. Infectious agents may be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals, mechanical vectors or intermediate hosts. Arboviruses are maintained in mosquito-monkey, mosquito-rodent, mosquito-bird, mosquito-pig, mosquito-horse and mosquito-human cycles. The enzootic cycle occurs in the region where humans intrude into the natural foci of infection. The rural epizootic cycle is involved among domestic animals and mosquitos, and amplified in the presence of intermediate hosts, which result in representing a large reservoir of viruses and severe spillover effect to dead-end hosts. In urban settings, viruses are transmitted between humans and the mosquito vectors in an urban epidemic cycle, using humans for amplification (Ref. 10).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836210&req=5

fig01: Routes of transmission and human exposure to zoonotic arboviruses. Infectious agents may be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals, mechanical vectors or intermediate hosts. Arboviruses are maintained in mosquito-monkey, mosquito-rodent, mosquito-bird, mosquito-pig, mosquito-horse and mosquito-human cycles. The enzootic cycle occurs in the region where humans intrude into the natural foci of infection. The rural epizootic cycle is involved among domestic animals and mosquitos, and amplified in the presence of intermediate hosts, which result in representing a large reservoir of viruses and severe spillover effect to dead-end hosts. In urban settings, viruses are transmitted between humans and the mosquito vectors in an urban epidemic cycle, using humans for amplification (Ref. 10).
Mentions: Arboviruses have a global distribution but the majority circulate in tropical areas where climatic conditions are favourable for year-round transmission. Arboviruses usually circulate within enzootic cycles involving wild or domestic animals with relatively few human infections (Ref. 9). Birds and rodents are the main reservoir hosts and mosquitoes and ticks are most often the vectors for the most important arboviruses (Table 1). ‘Spill-over’ of arboviruses from enzootic cycles to humans by enzootic or ‘bridge vectors’ can occur, under the appropriate ecological conditions. For most arboviruses, humans are dead-end or incidental hosts; however, there are several viruses such as dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya that primarily infect people during outbreaks and then begin to use humans as amplification sources (Ref. 9). Figure 1 illustrates the various mechanisms by which humans are infected by zoonotic and non-zoonotic arboviruses (Ref. 10).Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern.The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation.In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens,National Microbiology Laboratory,Public Health Agency of Canada,1015 Arlington St.,Winnipeg,Manitoba,Canada.

ABSTRACT
Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses. In this review, we focus on the importance of these pathways in the arbovirus replication and infection processes. We provide a brief introduction on how apoptosis, autophagy and the UPR are initiated and regulated, and then discuss the involvement of these pathways in regulation of arbovirus pathogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus