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The emerging role of GATA transcription factors in development and disease.

Lentjes MH, Niessen HE, Akiyama Y, de Bruïne AP, Melotte V, van Engeland M - Expert Rev Mol Med (2016)

Bottom Line: The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes.GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system.GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology,GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology,Maastricht University Medical Center,Maastricht,The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system. GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of GATA expression in various organs during vertebrate development.The expression of all GATA factors is depicted in the corresponding tissues. Thedistribution of the expression patterns roughly reflects the two GATA subgroups(GATA1/2/3 versus GATA4/5/6).
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fig02: Distribution of GATA expression in various organs during vertebrate development.The expression of all GATA factors is depicted in the corresponding tissues. Thedistribution of the expression patterns roughly reflects the two GATA subgroups(GATA1/2/3 versus GATA4/5/6).

Mentions: GATA1, the first recognised member of the GATA family, is specifically expressed duringhaematopoietic development of erythroid, and megakaryocytic cell lineages (Fig. 2) (Ref. 11). Loss of GATA1 in mouse embryo-derived stem cells results ina complete lack of primitive erythroid precursor production (Ref. 5). Definitive erythroid precursors, on the other hand, are normallyproduced, but undergo a maturation arrest at the proerythroblast stage followed byapoptosis (Ref. 12). Ablation ofGATA1 in adult mice also results in a maturation arrest at the sameproerythroblast stage (Ref. 13). The requirementof the different GATA1 functional domains during primitive and definitive erythropoiesishas been investigated in vivo, showing that both zinc fingers are needed to rescueGATA1 germline mutant mice (Ref. 14). In haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), GATA1 gene expressionis suppressed, which is indispensable for the maintenance of these stem cells. Themechanism behind this suppression is not fully understood yet. Recently, it was shown thatdecreased DNA methylation of the GATA1 locus leads to increased GATA2binding and that increased GATA2 binding results in GATA1 genetransactivation. According to these study results, Takai et al. proposed a mechanism inwhich GATA1 hypomethylation results in an accessible locus for GATA2binding which enables transactivation of GATA1 gene expression toinitiate erythropoiesis in megakaryo-erythroid progenitors (Ref. 15). Loss of GATA1 results in a marked increase ofGATA2 expression, indicating not only that GATA2 partially compensates for GATA1 but alsothat GATA1 suppresses GATA2 transcription during normal erythropoiesis (Ref. 16). This suppression is mediated by the displacementof GATA2 from its upstream enhancer by increasing levels of GATA1 referred to as the ‘GATAswitch’ (Ref. 17). The combined loss ofGATA1 and GATA2 in double-knockout embryos leads to analmost complete absence of primitive erythroid cells, suggesting functional overlapbetween these transcription factors early in the primitive erythropoiesis (Ref. 18). Figure 2.


The emerging role of GATA transcription factors in development and disease.

Lentjes MH, Niessen HE, Akiyama Y, de Bruïne AP, Melotte V, van Engeland M - Expert Rev Mol Med (2016)

Distribution of GATA expression in various organs during vertebrate development.The expression of all GATA factors is depicted in the corresponding tissues. Thedistribution of the expression patterns roughly reflects the two GATA subgroups(GATA1/2/3 versus GATA4/5/6).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836206&req=5

fig02: Distribution of GATA expression in various organs during vertebrate development.The expression of all GATA factors is depicted in the corresponding tissues. Thedistribution of the expression patterns roughly reflects the two GATA subgroups(GATA1/2/3 versus GATA4/5/6).
Mentions: GATA1, the first recognised member of the GATA family, is specifically expressed duringhaematopoietic development of erythroid, and megakaryocytic cell lineages (Fig. 2) (Ref. 11). Loss of GATA1 in mouse embryo-derived stem cells results ina complete lack of primitive erythroid precursor production (Ref. 5). Definitive erythroid precursors, on the other hand, are normallyproduced, but undergo a maturation arrest at the proerythroblast stage followed byapoptosis (Ref. 12). Ablation ofGATA1 in adult mice also results in a maturation arrest at the sameproerythroblast stage (Ref. 13). The requirementof the different GATA1 functional domains during primitive and definitive erythropoiesishas been investigated in vivo, showing that both zinc fingers are needed to rescueGATA1 germline mutant mice (Ref. 14). In haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), GATA1 gene expressionis suppressed, which is indispensable for the maintenance of these stem cells. Themechanism behind this suppression is not fully understood yet. Recently, it was shown thatdecreased DNA methylation of the GATA1 locus leads to increased GATA2binding and that increased GATA2 binding results in GATA1 genetransactivation. According to these study results, Takai et al. proposed a mechanism inwhich GATA1 hypomethylation results in an accessible locus for GATA2binding which enables transactivation of GATA1 gene expression toinitiate erythropoiesis in megakaryo-erythroid progenitors (Ref. 15). Loss of GATA1 results in a marked increase ofGATA2 expression, indicating not only that GATA2 partially compensates for GATA1 but alsothat GATA1 suppresses GATA2 transcription during normal erythropoiesis (Ref. 16). This suppression is mediated by the displacementof GATA2 from its upstream enhancer by increasing levels of GATA1 referred to as the ‘GATAswitch’ (Ref. 17). The combined loss ofGATA1 and GATA2 in double-knockout embryos leads to analmost complete absence of primitive erythroid cells, suggesting functional overlapbetween these transcription factors early in the primitive erythropoiesis (Ref. 18). Figure 2.

Bottom Line: The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes.GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system.GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology,GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology,Maastricht University Medical Center,Maastricht,The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system. GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus