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Should we use cells, biomaterials, or tissue engineering for cartilage regeneration?

Bernhard JC, Vunjak-Novakovic G - Stem Cell Res Ther (2016)

Bottom Line: After several decades, cartilage regeneration has proven to be anything but easy.With gratifying progress in our understanding of the factors governing cartilage development and function, and cell therapy being successfully used for several decades, there is still a lot to do.We present a concise review of some of the most meritorious efforts in each area, and propose that the solution will most likely emerge from the ongoing attempts to recapitulate certain aspects of native cartilage development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, 622 West 168th Street, VC12-234, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

ABSTRACT
For a long time, cartilage has been a major focus of the whole field of tissue engineering, both because of the constantly growing need for more effective options for joint repair and the expectation that this apparently simple tissue will be easy to engineer. After several decades, cartilage regeneration has proven to be anything but easy. With gratifying progress in our understanding of the factors governing cartilage development and function, and cell therapy being successfully used for several decades, there is still a lot to do. We lack reliable methods to generate durable articular cartilage that would resemble the original tissue lost to injury or disease. The question posed here is whether the answer would come from the methods using cells, biomaterials, or tissue engineering. We present a concise review of some of the most meritorious efforts in each area, and propose that the solution will most likely emerge from the ongoing attempts to recapitulate certain aspects of native cartilage development. While an ideal recipe for cartilage regeneration is yet to be formulated, we believe that it will contain cell, biomaterial, and tissue engineering approaches, blended into an effective method for seamless repair of articular cartilage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Engineering of stratified, mechanically functional human cartilage. a Human mesenchymal stem cells are induced to fuse into cell bodies which are then placed on the cartilage side of a mold in the exact shape of a condyle, an anatomically shaped bone scaffold is placed on the other side, and the two pieces are press-fit. After 5 weeks of in-vitro cultivation, an anatomical layer of articular cartilage forms at the interface with the underlying bone. b The resulting cartilage is physiologically thick and stratified, expressing all key markers, and integrated with the underlying bone. c The fusing mesenchymal stem cell bodies were also tested for their ability to repair small cartilage defects. Structural integration is shown by alcian blue and antibody stains for glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II. The newly formed tissue is shown on the left, the adjacent native cartilage on the right. Selected images are reproduced with permission from [73]. H & E hematoxylin and eosin
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Fig2: Engineering of stratified, mechanically functional human cartilage. a Human mesenchymal stem cells are induced to fuse into cell bodies which are then placed on the cartilage side of a mold in the exact shape of a condyle, an anatomically shaped bone scaffold is placed on the other side, and the two pieces are press-fit. After 5 weeks of in-vitro cultivation, an anatomical layer of articular cartilage forms at the interface with the underlying bone. b The resulting cartilage is physiologically thick and stratified, expressing all key markers, and integrated with the underlying bone. c The fusing mesenchymal stem cell bodies were also tested for their ability to repair small cartilage defects. Structural integration is shown by alcian blue and antibody stains for glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II. The newly formed tissue is shown on the left, the adjacent native cartilage on the right. Selected images are reproduced with permission from [73]. H & E hematoxylin and eosin

Mentions: A novel approach that appears to find this missing link recapitulates important steps in the native development of cartilage (Fig. 2). In these studies, chondrocytes and stem cells were condensed into scaffold-less constructs that formed cartilaginous tissue in a manner mimicking mesenchymal condensation that precedes native chondrogenesis [73–76]. This condensation-based approach demonstrated promising results, with studies revealing structural similarity of the tissue-engineered construct to native cartilage [73–76]. In one approach, biomechanical properties of cartilage derived from condensed human mesenchymal cells were comparable with native cartilage, with Young’s modulus of approximately 850 kPa and equilibrium friction coefficient <0.3. This method also formed mechanically strong cartilage and an interface in a cartilage defect model [73]. The mimicking of native development of cartilage with application of external controls provides an enticing way forward in the elusive pursuit of a translatable cartilage-defect solution.Fig. 2


Should we use cells, biomaterials, or tissue engineering for cartilage regeneration?

Bernhard JC, Vunjak-Novakovic G - Stem Cell Res Ther (2016)

Engineering of stratified, mechanically functional human cartilage. a Human mesenchymal stem cells are induced to fuse into cell bodies which are then placed on the cartilage side of a mold in the exact shape of a condyle, an anatomically shaped bone scaffold is placed on the other side, and the two pieces are press-fit. After 5 weeks of in-vitro cultivation, an anatomical layer of articular cartilage forms at the interface with the underlying bone. b The resulting cartilage is physiologically thick and stratified, expressing all key markers, and integrated with the underlying bone. c The fusing mesenchymal stem cell bodies were also tested for their ability to repair small cartilage defects. Structural integration is shown by alcian blue and antibody stains for glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II. The newly formed tissue is shown on the left, the adjacent native cartilage on the right. Selected images are reproduced with permission from [73]. H & E hematoxylin and eosin
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836146&req=5

Fig2: Engineering of stratified, mechanically functional human cartilage. a Human mesenchymal stem cells are induced to fuse into cell bodies which are then placed on the cartilage side of a mold in the exact shape of a condyle, an anatomically shaped bone scaffold is placed on the other side, and the two pieces are press-fit. After 5 weeks of in-vitro cultivation, an anatomical layer of articular cartilage forms at the interface with the underlying bone. b The resulting cartilage is physiologically thick and stratified, expressing all key markers, and integrated with the underlying bone. c The fusing mesenchymal stem cell bodies were also tested for their ability to repair small cartilage defects. Structural integration is shown by alcian blue and antibody stains for glycosaminoglycan and collagen type II. The newly formed tissue is shown on the left, the adjacent native cartilage on the right. Selected images are reproduced with permission from [73]. H & E hematoxylin and eosin
Mentions: A novel approach that appears to find this missing link recapitulates important steps in the native development of cartilage (Fig. 2). In these studies, chondrocytes and stem cells were condensed into scaffold-less constructs that formed cartilaginous tissue in a manner mimicking mesenchymal condensation that precedes native chondrogenesis [73–76]. This condensation-based approach demonstrated promising results, with studies revealing structural similarity of the tissue-engineered construct to native cartilage [73–76]. In one approach, biomechanical properties of cartilage derived from condensed human mesenchymal cells were comparable with native cartilage, with Young’s modulus of approximately 850 kPa and equilibrium friction coefficient <0.3. This method also formed mechanically strong cartilage and an interface in a cartilage defect model [73]. The mimicking of native development of cartilage with application of external controls provides an enticing way forward in the elusive pursuit of a translatable cartilage-defect solution.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: After several decades, cartilage regeneration has proven to be anything but easy.With gratifying progress in our understanding of the factors governing cartilage development and function, and cell therapy being successfully used for several decades, there is still a lot to do.We present a concise review of some of the most meritorious efforts in each area, and propose that the solution will most likely emerge from the ongoing attempts to recapitulate certain aspects of native cartilage development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, 622 West 168th Street, VC12-234, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

ABSTRACT
For a long time, cartilage has been a major focus of the whole field of tissue engineering, both because of the constantly growing need for more effective options for joint repair and the expectation that this apparently simple tissue will be easy to engineer. After several decades, cartilage regeneration has proven to be anything but easy. With gratifying progress in our understanding of the factors governing cartilage development and function, and cell therapy being successfully used for several decades, there is still a lot to do. We lack reliable methods to generate durable articular cartilage that would resemble the original tissue lost to injury or disease. The question posed here is whether the answer would come from the methods using cells, biomaterials, or tissue engineering. We present a concise review of some of the most meritorious efforts in each area, and propose that the solution will most likely emerge from the ongoing attempts to recapitulate certain aspects of native cartilage development. While an ideal recipe for cartilage regeneration is yet to be formulated, we believe that it will contain cell, biomaterial, and tissue engineering approaches, blended into an effective method for seamless repair of articular cartilage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus