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Tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in Nigerian cattle.

Lorusso V, Wijnveld M, Majekodunmi AO, Dongkum C, Fajinmi A, Dogo AG, Thrusfield M, Mugenyi A, Vaumourin E, Igweh AC, Jongejan F, Welburn SC, Picozzi K - Parasit Vectors (2016)

Bottom Line: In total, 561/704 (82.6%) animals were found infected, with 465 (69.6%) of them being infected by two or more microorganisms, with up to 77 possible combinations of pathogens detected.Calves were found significantly less infected than juvenile and adult cattle.The high prevalence recorded for T. mutans, T. velifera, A. marginale, T. taurotragi and Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne), suggests they may be endemically established in Nigeria, whereas the lower prevalence recorded for other microorganisms (i.e. A. centrale and B. bovis) highlights a less stable epidemiological scenario, requiring further investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. In this West African country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. Consequently, several TBDs are known to be endemic in Nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by Theileria mutans and Theileria velifera). To date, all investigations on cattle TBDs in Nigeria have been based on cytological examinations and/or on serological methods. This study aimed to ascertain the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens of veterinary and zoonotic importance in cattle in Nigeria using molecular approaches.

Methods: In October 2008, 704 whole blood samples were collected from indigenous cattle in the Plateau State, Nigeria. Analysis for tick-borne pathogens was conducted by means of PCR-based reverse line blotting (RLB) and sequencing targeting a panel of five genera of microorganisms (i.e. Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia spp.).

Results: In total, 561/704 (82.6%) animals were found infected, with 465 (69.6%) of them being infected by two or more microorganisms, with up to 77 possible combinations of pathogens detected. Theileria mutans was the most prevalent microorganism (66.3%), followed by Theileria velifera (52.4%), Theileria taurotragi (39.5%), Anaplasma marginale (39.1%), Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne) (34.7%), Babesia bigemina (7.9%), Anaplasma centrale (6.3%), Anaplasma platys (3.9%), Rickettsia massiliae (3.5%), Babesia bovis (2.0%) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (1.1%). Calves were found significantly less infected than juvenile and adult cattle.

Conclusions: This study provides updated, molecular-based information on cattle TBDs in Nigeria. The molecular approach employed allowed the diagnosis of numerous positive cases including carrier statuses, multiple infections and novel pathogen detections within the indigenous cattle population. Moreover, the RLB method here described enabled the detection of veterinary agents not only pertaining to bovine health, including also those of zoonotic importance. The high prevalence recorded for T. mutans, T. velifera, A. marginale, T. taurotragi and Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne), suggests they may be endemically established in Nigeria, whereas the lower prevalence recorded for other microorganisms (i.e. A. centrale and B. bovis) highlights a less stable epidemiological scenario, requiring further investigations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence (%) of each tick-borne pathogen detected, compared according to age classes. Error bars indicate 95 % CI, while asterisks indicate statistically significant difference between age classes. Calves were significantly less infected than both juveniles and adults for T. mutans (P < 0.0001 in both cases), T. velifera (P < 0.0001 in both cases) and T. taurotragi (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001) infections. Calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (P = 0.02) with respect to Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne) infection. Both calves and juveniles were significantly more infected than adult cattle (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.003) for B. bigemina infection
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Fig4: Prevalence (%) of each tick-borne pathogen detected, compared according to age classes. Error bars indicate 95 % CI, while asterisks indicate statistically significant difference between age classes. Calves were significantly less infected than both juveniles and adults for T. mutans (P < 0.0001 in both cases), T. velifera (P < 0.0001 in both cases) and T. taurotragi (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001) infections. Calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (P = 0.02) with respect to Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne) infection. Both calves and juveniles were significantly more infected than adult cattle (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.003) for B. bigemina infection

Mentions: On the whole, calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (χ2 = 12.759, df = 2, OR = 0.252, P = 0.001) and adult cattle (χ2 = 7.096, df = 2, OR = 0.401, P = 0.02), whereas no statistically significant difference was detected between juveniles and adults (χ2 = 3.980, df = 2, OR = 1.592, P = 0.138). When reviewing each individual tick-borne infection, calves were significantly less infected than both juveniles and adults with regards to T. mutans (χ2 = 24.449, df = 2, OR = 5.756, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 18.868, df = 2, OR = 4.225, P < 0.0001, respectively), T. velifera (χ2 = 22.728, df = 2, OR = 7.277, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 29.616, df = 2, OR = 8.370, P < 0.0001, respectively) and T. taurotragi (χ2 = 16.381, df = 2, OR = 5.592, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 13.248, df = 2, OR = 4.484, P = 0.001, respectively) infections, while no significant difference was recorded when comparing juvenile with adult cattle, for T. mutans (χ2 = 2.838, df = 2, OR = 0.734, P = 0.3); T. velifera (χ2 = 0.65, df = 2, OR = 1.150, P = 1) and T. taurotragi (χ2 = 1.554, df = 2, OR = 0.802, P = 0.6). In addition, calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (χ2 = 7.322, df = 2, OR = 2.877, P = 0.02), but not than adults (χ2 = 4.183, df = 2, OR = 2.167, P = 0.1), for Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne). Furthermore, both calves and juveniles were significantly more infected by B. bigemina than adults (χ2 = 17.947, df = 2, OR = 0.147, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 10.915, df = 2, OR = 0.355, P = 0.003, respectively). No E. ruminantium infection was detected in calves (see also Fig. 4).Fig. 4


Tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in Nigerian cattle.

Lorusso V, Wijnveld M, Majekodunmi AO, Dongkum C, Fajinmi A, Dogo AG, Thrusfield M, Mugenyi A, Vaumourin E, Igweh AC, Jongejan F, Welburn SC, Picozzi K - Parasit Vectors (2016)

Prevalence (%) of each tick-borne pathogen detected, compared according to age classes. Error bars indicate 95 % CI, while asterisks indicate statistically significant difference between age classes. Calves were significantly less infected than both juveniles and adults for T. mutans (P < 0.0001 in both cases), T. velifera (P < 0.0001 in both cases) and T. taurotragi (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001) infections. Calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (P = 0.02) with respect to Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne) infection. Both calves and juveniles were significantly more infected than adult cattle (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.003) for B. bigemina infection
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836144&req=5

Fig4: Prevalence (%) of each tick-borne pathogen detected, compared according to age classes. Error bars indicate 95 % CI, while asterisks indicate statistically significant difference between age classes. Calves were significantly less infected than both juveniles and adults for T. mutans (P < 0.0001 in both cases), T. velifera (P < 0.0001 in both cases) and T. taurotragi (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001) infections. Calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (P = 0.02) with respect to Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne) infection. Both calves and juveniles were significantly more infected than adult cattle (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.003) for B. bigemina infection
Mentions: On the whole, calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (χ2 = 12.759, df = 2, OR = 0.252, P = 0.001) and adult cattle (χ2 = 7.096, df = 2, OR = 0.401, P = 0.02), whereas no statistically significant difference was detected between juveniles and adults (χ2 = 3.980, df = 2, OR = 1.592, P = 0.138). When reviewing each individual tick-borne infection, calves were significantly less infected than both juveniles and adults with regards to T. mutans (χ2 = 24.449, df = 2, OR = 5.756, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 18.868, df = 2, OR = 4.225, P < 0.0001, respectively), T. velifera (χ2 = 22.728, df = 2, OR = 7.277, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 29.616, df = 2, OR = 8.370, P < 0.0001, respectively) and T. taurotragi (χ2 = 16.381, df = 2, OR = 5.592, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 13.248, df = 2, OR = 4.484, P = 0.001, respectively) infections, while no significant difference was recorded when comparing juvenile with adult cattle, for T. mutans (χ2 = 2.838, df = 2, OR = 0.734, P = 0.3); T. velifera (χ2 = 0.65, df = 2, OR = 1.150, P = 1) and T. taurotragi (χ2 = 1.554, df = 2, OR = 0.802, P = 0.6). In addition, calves were significantly less infected than juveniles (χ2 = 7.322, df = 2, OR = 2.877, P = 0.02), but not than adults (χ2 = 4.183, df = 2, OR = 2.167, P = 0.1), for Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne). Furthermore, both calves and juveniles were significantly more infected by B. bigemina than adults (χ2 = 17.947, df = 2, OR = 0.147, P < 0.0001 and χ2 = 10.915, df = 2, OR = 0.355, P = 0.003, respectively). No E. ruminantium infection was detected in calves (see also Fig. 4).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: In total, 561/704 (82.6%) animals were found infected, with 465 (69.6%) of them being infected by two or more microorganisms, with up to 77 possible combinations of pathogens detected.Calves were found significantly less infected than juvenile and adult cattle.The high prevalence recorded for T. mutans, T. velifera, A. marginale, T. taurotragi and Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne), suggests they may be endemically established in Nigeria, whereas the lower prevalence recorded for other microorganisms (i.e. A. centrale and B. bovis) highlights a less stable epidemiological scenario, requiring further investigations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. In this West African country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. Consequently, several TBDs are known to be endemic in Nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by Theileria mutans and Theileria velifera). To date, all investigations on cattle TBDs in Nigeria have been based on cytological examinations and/or on serological methods. This study aimed to ascertain the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens of veterinary and zoonotic importance in cattle in Nigeria using molecular approaches.

Methods: In October 2008, 704 whole blood samples were collected from indigenous cattle in the Plateau State, Nigeria. Analysis for tick-borne pathogens was conducted by means of PCR-based reverse line blotting (RLB) and sequencing targeting a panel of five genera of microorganisms (i.e. Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia spp.).

Results: In total, 561/704 (82.6%) animals were found infected, with 465 (69.6%) of them being infected by two or more microorganisms, with up to 77 possible combinations of pathogens detected. Theileria mutans was the most prevalent microorganism (66.3%), followed by Theileria velifera (52.4%), Theileria taurotragi (39.5%), Anaplasma marginale (39.1%), Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne) (34.7%), Babesia bigemina (7.9%), Anaplasma centrale (6.3%), Anaplasma platys (3.9%), Rickettsia massiliae (3.5%), Babesia bovis (2.0%) and Ehrlichia ruminantium (1.1%). Calves were found significantly less infected than juvenile and adult cattle.

Conclusions: This study provides updated, molecular-based information on cattle TBDs in Nigeria. The molecular approach employed allowed the diagnosis of numerous positive cases including carrier statuses, multiple infections and novel pathogen detections within the indigenous cattle population. Moreover, the RLB method here described enabled the detection of veterinary agents not only pertaining to bovine health, including also those of zoonotic importance. The high prevalence recorded for T. mutans, T. velifera, A. marginale, T. taurotragi and Anaplasma sp. (Omatjenne), suggests they may be endemically established in Nigeria, whereas the lower prevalence recorded for other microorganisms (i.e. A. centrale and B. bovis) highlights a less stable epidemiological scenario, requiring further investigations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus