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Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial.

Balfegó M, Canivell S, Hanzu FA, Sala-Vila A, Martínez-Medina M, Murillo S, Mur T, Ruano EG, Linares F, Porras N, Valladares S, Fontalba M, Roura E, Novials A, Hernández C, Aranda G, Sisó-Almirall A, Rojo-Martínez G, Simó R, Gomis R - Lipids Health Dis (2016)

Bottom Line: However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04).The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001).Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CIBER in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), c/ Monforte de Lemos 3-5 Pabellón 11 planta 0, 28029, Madrid, Spain. mbalfego@clinic.ub.es.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treating diabetes mellitus. The inclusion of fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week is recommended by current international dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. In contrast to a large number of human studies examining the effects of oily fish on different cardiovascular risk factors, little research on this topic is available in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the effects of a sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition, and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: 35 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either a type 2 diabetes standard diet (control group: CG), or a standard diet enriched with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week (sardine group: SG) for 6 months. Anthropometric, dietary information, fasting glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, EMFA and specific bacterial strains were determined before and after intervention.

Results: There were no significant differences in glycemic control between groups at the end of the study. Both groups decreased plasma insulin (SG: -35.3%, P = 0.01, CG: -22.6%, P = 0.02) and homeostasis model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SG: -39.2%, P = 0.007, CG: -21.8%, P = 0.04) at 6-months from baseline. However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04). The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001). Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline.

Conclusions: Although enriching diet with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week during 6 months to a type 2 diabetes standard diet seems to have neutral effects on glycemic control in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes, this nutritional intervention could have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, both dietary interventions decreased HOMA-IR and altered gut microbiota composition of drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes.

Trial registration: Trial number and name of the registry: NCT02294526, ClinicalTrials.gov.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The CONSORT flow diagram
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Fig2: The CONSORT flow diagram

Mentions: Baseline characteristics of the participants were not significantly different between the two groups (Table 1, Additional file 2). All of them were overweight or obese, had HbA1c values over 6.5 % and had insulin levels between 14.6 and 17.1 mU/L (Table 1). Two subjects of SG were discontinued from the study, both for incompliance with the sardine diet. In the CG, one subject was unable to complete the study due to cancer diagnosis. Of the thirty-five randomized subjects selected to enter the study, a total of thirty-two completed the six-month intervention. Six SG subjects and two CG subjects had no final dietary data; therefore, the changes in dietary intake for these subjects were not included in the analyses performed (Fig. 2).Table 1


Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial.

Balfegó M, Canivell S, Hanzu FA, Sala-Vila A, Martínez-Medina M, Murillo S, Mur T, Ruano EG, Linares F, Porras N, Valladares S, Fontalba M, Roura E, Novials A, Hernández C, Aranda G, Sisó-Almirall A, Rojo-Martínez G, Simó R, Gomis R - Lipids Health Dis (2016)

The CONSORT flow diagram
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4836051&req=5

Fig2: The CONSORT flow diagram
Mentions: Baseline characteristics of the participants were not significantly different between the two groups (Table 1, Additional file 2). All of them were overweight or obese, had HbA1c values over 6.5 % and had insulin levels between 14.6 and 17.1 mU/L (Table 1). Two subjects of SG were discontinued from the study, both for incompliance with the sardine diet. In the CG, one subject was unable to complete the study due to cancer diagnosis. Of the thirty-five randomized subjects selected to enter the study, a total of thirty-two completed the six-month intervention. Six SG subjects and two CG subjects had no final dietary data; therefore, the changes in dietary intake for these subjects were not included in the analyses performed (Fig. 2).Table 1

Bottom Line: However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04).The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001).Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CIBER in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), c/ Monforte de Lemos 3-5 Pabellón 11 planta 0, 28029, Madrid, Spain. mbalfego@clinic.ub.es.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treating diabetes mellitus. The inclusion of fish (particularly oily fish) at least two times per week is recommended by current international dietary guidelines for type 2 diabetes. In contrast to a large number of human studies examining the effects of oily fish on different cardiovascular risk factors, little research on this topic is available in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the effects of a sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition, and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: 35 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either a type 2 diabetes standard diet (control group: CG), or a standard diet enriched with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week (sardine group: SG) for 6 months. Anthropometric, dietary information, fasting glycated hemoglobin, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers, EMFA and specific bacterial strains were determined before and after intervention.

Results: There were no significant differences in glycemic control between groups at the end of the study. Both groups decreased plasma insulin (SG: -35.3%, P = 0.01, CG: -22.6%, P = 0.02) and homeostasis model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SG: -39.2%, P = 0.007, CG: -21.8%, P = 0.04) at 6-months from baseline. However only SG increased adiponectin in plasma compared to baseline level (+40.7%, P = 0.04). The omega-3 index increased 2.6% in the SG compared to 0.6% in the CG (P = 0.001). Both dietary interventions decreased phylum Firmicutes (SG and CG: P = 0.04) and increased E. coli concentrations (SG: P = 0.01, CG: P = 0.03) at the end of the study from baseline, whereas SG decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.04) and increased Bacteroides-Prevotella (P = 0.004) compared to baseline.

Conclusions: Although enriching diet with 100 g of sardines 5 days a week during 6 months to a type 2 diabetes standard diet seems to have neutral effects on glycemic control in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes, this nutritional intervention could have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, both dietary interventions decreased HOMA-IR and altered gut microbiota composition of drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes.

Trial registration: Trial number and name of the registry: NCT02294526, ClinicalTrials.gov.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus