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Amarkand: A comprehensive review on its ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy.

Narkhede AN, Kasote DM, Kuvalekar AA, Harsulkar AM, Jagtap SD - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Bottom Line: Recent studies confirm antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, and so forth activities to Amarkand species.These species are reported to possess various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenanthrene derivatives.The present review will help to understand overall ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy of Amarkand species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Herbal Medicine, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT
In India, the term "Amarkand" is commonly used for around 30 different plant species belonging to genus Eulophia (Orchidaceae). This single local name Amarkand to different taxonomical species creates uncertainty about its ethnomedical and nutritional claims. In the present article, we have reviewed available literature regarding ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, taxonomy, nutritional, and pharmacological studies of different Amarkand species. The literature was searched using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Some textbooks and reference books were also used to collect information about traditional and ethnopharmacological records. Amarkand species have been used as a remedy for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, stomach pain, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, sexual impotency, tuberculosis, and so on. Nutritionally, Amarkand is considered as an excellent food for children and convalescents. Recent studies confirm antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, and so forth activities to Amarkand species. These species are reported to possess various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenanthrene derivatives. The present review will help to understand overall ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy of Amarkand species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative photograph of (a) whole plant of Eulophia species and (b) chain of underground tubers of Eulophia species
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Figure 1: Representative photograph of (a) whole plant of Eulophia species and (b) chain of underground tubers of Eulophia species

Mentions: Species under genus Eulophia are terrestrial herbs, autotrophic, or rarely heteromycotrophic [Figure 1a]. Perennating organs may be pseudobulbs or tuber like. These pseudobulbs are subterranean or born above ground, corm like, tuberous or rhizomatous, usually with several nodes and slender or thick fibrous roots at the base. Eulophia develops a chain of underground tubers [Figure 1b]. Leaves appear at or after anthesis, which are thin but tough, narrow, and grass like or lanceolate and plicate and are one to many, basal and having petiole-like leaf base, sometimes overlapping and forming a pseudostem. Some species lack green leaves and are saprophytic. The inflorescence is erect, lateral, racemose or rarely paniculate, laxly to sub-densely many flowered or occasionally reduced to a solitary flower. Eulophia species are mostly identified by their flowers. Two types of flowers occur within Eulophia. In the first type, the sepals and petals are similar in size, shape, and color while in the other, sepals are smaller than petals and often recurved. In both types, the lip extends into a spur which can be very diverse in shape [6,15].


Amarkand: A comprehensive review on its ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy.

Narkhede AN, Kasote DM, Kuvalekar AA, Harsulkar AM, Jagtap SD - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Representative photograph of (a) whole plant of Eulophia species and (b) chain of underground tubers of Eulophia species
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835997&req=5

Figure 1: Representative photograph of (a) whole plant of Eulophia species and (b) chain of underground tubers of Eulophia species
Mentions: Species under genus Eulophia are terrestrial herbs, autotrophic, or rarely heteromycotrophic [Figure 1a]. Perennating organs may be pseudobulbs or tuber like. These pseudobulbs are subterranean or born above ground, corm like, tuberous or rhizomatous, usually with several nodes and slender or thick fibrous roots at the base. Eulophia develops a chain of underground tubers [Figure 1b]. Leaves appear at or after anthesis, which are thin but tough, narrow, and grass like or lanceolate and plicate and are one to many, basal and having petiole-like leaf base, sometimes overlapping and forming a pseudostem. Some species lack green leaves and are saprophytic. The inflorescence is erect, lateral, racemose or rarely paniculate, laxly to sub-densely many flowered or occasionally reduced to a solitary flower. Eulophia species are mostly identified by their flowers. Two types of flowers occur within Eulophia. In the first type, the sepals and petals are similar in size, shape, and color while in the other, sepals are smaller than petals and often recurved. In both types, the lip extends into a spur which can be very diverse in shape [6,15].

Bottom Line: Recent studies confirm antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, and so forth activities to Amarkand species.These species are reported to possess various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenanthrene derivatives.The present review will help to understand overall ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy of Amarkand species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Herbal Medicine, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

ABSTRACT
In India, the term "Amarkand" is commonly used for around 30 different plant species belonging to genus Eulophia (Orchidaceae). This single local name Amarkand to different taxonomical species creates uncertainty about its ethnomedical and nutritional claims. In the present article, we have reviewed available literature regarding ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, taxonomy, nutritional, and pharmacological studies of different Amarkand species. The literature was searched using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Some textbooks and reference books were also used to collect information about traditional and ethnopharmacological records. Amarkand species have been used as a remedy for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, stomach pain, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, sexual impotency, tuberculosis, and so on. Nutritionally, Amarkand is considered as an excellent food for children and convalescents. Recent studies confirm antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, and so forth activities to Amarkand species. These species are reported to possess various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenanthrene derivatives. The present review will help to understand overall ethnopharmacology, nutritional aspects, and taxonomy of Amarkand species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus