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Antibacterial efficiency of the Sudanese Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), a famous beverage from Sudanese folk medicine.

Abdallah EM - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Bottom Line: Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine.The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect.The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Laboratory Sciences, College of Sciences and Arts at Al-Rass, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine.

Materials and methods: The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods.

Results: The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect.

Conclusion: The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative photos showing the antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces at concentration 500 mg/ml (10 mg/disc). P: Penicillin G 10 units/disc, G: Gentamicin 10 μg/disc, M: 80% Methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces 10 μg/disc, P.a: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, S.e: Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49461, E.c: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, B.c: Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876
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Figure 2: Representative photos showing the antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces at concentration 500 mg/ml (10 mg/disc). P: Penicillin G 10 units/disc, G: Gentamicin 10 μg/disc, M: 80% Methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces 10 μg/disc, P.a: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, S.e: Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49461, E.c: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, B.c: Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876

Mentions: The current study revealed the considerable antibacterial activity of methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces against all tested bacteria, particularly the Gram-positives, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Disc inhibition zones above 10 mm for the tested crude extract considered a good antibacterial activity (Blank disc diameter 6 mm). Interestingly, the investigated extract was found to inhibit the growth of all tested Gram-positives and Gram-negatives, giving clear, obvious zones by disc diffusion method compared with the antibiotics [Figure 2], being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest antibacterial activity of H. sabdariffa calyces was recorded by S. aureus (18.5 ± 0.5 mm), followed by S. epidermidis (17.5 ± 1.5 mm), S. enteric (17.5 ± 1.5 mm), K. pneumonia (17.5 ± 0.5 mm), P. aeruginosa (15.5 ± 0.5 mm), E. coli (14.5±0.5 mm), P. vulgaris (14.5±0.5 mm), and B. cereus (13.5 ± 1.5 mm), respectively. Similar several previous studies were reported on the calyces of H. sabdariffa using different solvents, concentrations, and bacterial strains (clinical and referenced strains); Borrás-Linares et al. [19] published that the ethanol extract from 25 varieties of mexican H. sabdariffa calyces was effective against all Gram-negatives (E. coli and S. enteritidis) and Gram-positives (S. aureus and Micrococcus luteus), the greater effect was against the Gram-positive bacteria. Its ethanol extract was potent against bacteria isolated from wastewater, particularly P. aeruginosa [20]. Aqueous, ethanol, and methanol extracts H. sabdariffa calyxes’ revealed good antibacterial activity against Salmonella cultures [6]. Its 80% methanol extract was also found active against Escherichia coli O157:H7, a major foodborne pathogen [21] and suggested as potential antibacterial in foods [22]. The current investigation and the majority of previous published studies unanimously agreed that H. sabdariffa calyces which collected from different localities around the world have effective antibacterial properties; this feature makes it a unique and promising antibacterial plant. It is known that the bioactivity of the extracts from the same plant species may vary according to the plant extraction process which affect greatly by many factors such as type of solvents, method of extraction, temperature (hot or cold liquids), age of the plant and season of harvesting [23], this stability of H. sabdariffa calyces as distinguished antibacterial agent is very interesting. Moreover, as represented in Figure 3, the antibacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (10 mg/disc) was significantly higher than penicillin G (10 units), and non-significant statistically when compared with the gentamicin (10 μg/disc), meaning that this plant extract is competitor to gentamicin. This is interesting since antibiotics are suffering from deterioration in its effectiveness around the globe [24], S. aureus is one of the most prevalent antibiotics resistant pathogens worldwide, particularly the methicillin-resistant S. aureus [25]. More antibacterial studies on the effects of the calyces of H. sabdariffa on this bacterium in particular are recommended. These considerable antibacterial properties of the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (80% v/v) are attributed to some bioactive phytochemical constituents present in this extract. Table 3 shows that the methanolic extract is rich in phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins while tannins and anthraquinones did not detect. This is in agreement with Djeussi et al. [26], who found many phytochemicals in the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, polyphenols, saponins, triterpenes, and sterols but no anthraquinones, tannins, or anthocyanins. On the other side, Suliman et al. [27] figure out many bioactive phytochemicals in the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces such as saponins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, tannins, steroids, and phenolic compounds. However, the antibacterial agent(s) in the calyces are not determined yet, it was believed that its antibacterial activity could be attributed to anthocyanins [28], but it was found that this antibacterial activity was high with H. sabdariffa calyces lacking totally these anthocyanins [6]. Accordingly, more future studies should be conducted to find out and isolate a single compound or group of compounds which could serve as an antibacterial drug. Certainly, additional pharmacological, microbiological, and toxicological studies are recommended.


Antibacterial efficiency of the Sudanese Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), a famous beverage from Sudanese folk medicine.

Abdallah EM - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Representative photos showing the antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces at concentration 500 mg/ml (10 mg/disc). P: Penicillin G 10 units/disc, G: Gentamicin 10 μg/disc, M: 80% Methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces 10 μg/disc, P.a: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, S.e: Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49461, E.c: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, B.c: Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835995&req=5

Figure 2: Representative photos showing the antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces at concentration 500 mg/ml (10 mg/disc). P: Penicillin G 10 units/disc, G: Gentamicin 10 μg/disc, M: 80% Methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces 10 μg/disc, P.a: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, S.e: Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49461, E.c: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, B.c: Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876
Mentions: The current study revealed the considerable antibacterial activity of methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces against all tested bacteria, particularly the Gram-positives, as shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Disc inhibition zones above 10 mm for the tested crude extract considered a good antibacterial activity (Blank disc diameter 6 mm). Interestingly, the investigated extract was found to inhibit the growth of all tested Gram-positives and Gram-negatives, giving clear, obvious zones by disc diffusion method compared with the antibiotics [Figure 2], being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest antibacterial activity of H. sabdariffa calyces was recorded by S. aureus (18.5 ± 0.5 mm), followed by S. epidermidis (17.5 ± 1.5 mm), S. enteric (17.5 ± 1.5 mm), K. pneumonia (17.5 ± 0.5 mm), P. aeruginosa (15.5 ± 0.5 mm), E. coli (14.5±0.5 mm), P. vulgaris (14.5±0.5 mm), and B. cereus (13.5 ± 1.5 mm), respectively. Similar several previous studies were reported on the calyces of H. sabdariffa using different solvents, concentrations, and bacterial strains (clinical and referenced strains); Borrás-Linares et al. [19] published that the ethanol extract from 25 varieties of mexican H. sabdariffa calyces was effective against all Gram-negatives (E. coli and S. enteritidis) and Gram-positives (S. aureus and Micrococcus luteus), the greater effect was against the Gram-positive bacteria. Its ethanol extract was potent against bacteria isolated from wastewater, particularly P. aeruginosa [20]. Aqueous, ethanol, and methanol extracts H. sabdariffa calyxes’ revealed good antibacterial activity against Salmonella cultures [6]. Its 80% methanol extract was also found active against Escherichia coli O157:H7, a major foodborne pathogen [21] and suggested as potential antibacterial in foods [22]. The current investigation and the majority of previous published studies unanimously agreed that H. sabdariffa calyces which collected from different localities around the world have effective antibacterial properties; this feature makes it a unique and promising antibacterial plant. It is known that the bioactivity of the extracts from the same plant species may vary according to the plant extraction process which affect greatly by many factors such as type of solvents, method of extraction, temperature (hot or cold liquids), age of the plant and season of harvesting [23], this stability of H. sabdariffa calyces as distinguished antibacterial agent is very interesting. Moreover, as represented in Figure 3, the antibacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (10 mg/disc) was significantly higher than penicillin G (10 units), and non-significant statistically when compared with the gentamicin (10 μg/disc), meaning that this plant extract is competitor to gentamicin. This is interesting since antibiotics are suffering from deterioration in its effectiveness around the globe [24], S. aureus is one of the most prevalent antibiotics resistant pathogens worldwide, particularly the methicillin-resistant S. aureus [25]. More antibacterial studies on the effects of the calyces of H. sabdariffa on this bacterium in particular are recommended. These considerable antibacterial properties of the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (80% v/v) are attributed to some bioactive phytochemical constituents present in this extract. Table 3 shows that the methanolic extract is rich in phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins while tannins and anthraquinones did not detect. This is in agreement with Djeussi et al. [26], who found many phytochemicals in the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, polyphenols, saponins, triterpenes, and sterols but no anthraquinones, tannins, or anthocyanins. On the other side, Suliman et al. [27] figure out many bioactive phytochemicals in the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces such as saponins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, tannins, steroids, and phenolic compounds. However, the antibacterial agent(s) in the calyces are not determined yet, it was believed that its antibacterial activity could be attributed to anthocyanins [28], but it was found that this antibacterial activity was high with H. sabdariffa calyces lacking totally these anthocyanins [6]. Accordingly, more future studies should be conducted to find out and isolate a single compound or group of compounds which could serve as an antibacterial drug. Certainly, additional pharmacological, microbiological, and toxicological studies are recommended.

Bottom Line: Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine.The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect.The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Laboratory Sciences, College of Sciences and Arts at Al-Rass, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine.

Materials and methods: The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods.

Results: The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect.

Conclusion: The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus