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Anticoagulant effect and safety assessment of an aqueous extract of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) harms and Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Ex Hook.) harms.

Nyansah WB, Koffuor GA, Asare F, Gyanfosu L - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Bottom Line: The PAE treatment resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in BT and CT in vivo compared with control.The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was <2000 mg/kg when given orally.PAE has anticoagulant effect in vitro and is safe to use at oral doses <2000 mg/kg.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently available therapeutic options for thromboembolic disorders are often very expensive and are associated with unfavorable side effects.

Aim: To establish the anticoagulant effect and safety profile of an extract made from of the root bark of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms and the aerial part of Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Harms (PAE).

Materials and methods: PAE (0.5-2.0 g/L) effect on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were evaluated on whole blood drawn from the marginal ear vein of New Zealand White rabbits. Effect of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg) on bleeding time (BT) and clotting time (CT) in Sprague-Dawley rats were also assessed. Histopathological, hematological, and liver function studies were also carried out to assess the safety for use of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg).

Results: PAE had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on PT, but resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in aPTT. The PAE treatment resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in BT and CT in vivo compared with control. Safety studies indicated no deaths with PAE treatment with hematological and liver function tests being normal. Histological studies revealed pathological changes in the liver at a PAE treatment dose of 2000 mg/kg but all doses had no detrimental effect on kidney and stomach tissue. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was <2000 mg/kg when given orally.

Conclusion: PAE has anticoagulant effect in vitro and is safe to use at oral doses <2000 mg/kg.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrographs of the stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after treatment with various doses of Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Adenia cissampeloides extract. (a) Control showed normal architecture, intact gastric mucosa (GM), sub mucosa (SM), gastric pits (G) and surface epithelium (SE), and collagen fibres (C); (b) 250 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal stomach architecture with no signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in gastric pits, intact mucosa and sub mucosa; (c) 500 mg/kg PAE treatment revealing normal stomach architecture with even distribution of cells and gastric pits. Intact epithelium, mucosa and sub mucosa; (d) 1000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with no superficial erosion. Gastric pits appeared normal with no unusual increase in depth or spacing, (e) 2000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with even distribution of cellular components and gastric pits, no visible signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in mucosa and sub mucosa. H and E staining, Objective magnification: ×10
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Figure 9: Photomicrographs of the stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after treatment with various doses of Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Adenia cissampeloides extract. (a) Control showed normal architecture, intact gastric mucosa (GM), sub mucosa (SM), gastric pits (G) and surface epithelium (SE), and collagen fibres (C); (b) 250 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal stomach architecture with no signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in gastric pits, intact mucosa and sub mucosa; (c) 500 mg/kg PAE treatment revealing normal stomach architecture with even distribution of cells and gastric pits. Intact epithelium, mucosa and sub mucosa; (d) 1000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with no superficial erosion. Gastric pits appeared normal with no unusual increase in depth or spacing, (e) 2000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with even distribution of cellular components and gastric pits, no visible signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in mucosa and sub mucosa. H and E staining, Objective magnification: ×10

Mentions: The hepatic tissue of control group revealed normal architecture showing normal hepatocytes with nuclei, central and portal veins. Sinusoids appeared to radiate in a divergent fashion from a focal point towards the peripheries [Figure 7]. Treatment with 250 mg/kg PAE revealed no difference in the structural integrity of hepatic tissue compared with control [Figure 7]. PAE treatment at 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg also showed normal central and portal veins, hepatocytes, and nuclei; however, there was sinusoid dilatation, from minor to major, compared with the control. Portal veins also appeared dilated with 2000 mg/kg PAE treatment [Figure 7]. Renal tissue in control animals revealed normal tissue architecture, with normal sized glomerulus, urinary space, distal and proximal tubules with nuclei and Bowman’s capsule [Figure 8]. PAE treatments at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg showed no significant change in renal tissue architecture compared with the control [Figure 8]. The stomach also showed normal tissue architecture with normal gastric cells, mucosa and sub mucosa in all PAE treatments [Figure 9] compared with control [Figure 9]. Gastric epithelial cells appeared normal with no signs of erosion or tissue destruction and evenly spaced gastric pits.


Anticoagulant effect and safety assessment of an aqueous extract of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) harms and Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Ex Hook.) harms.

Nyansah WB, Koffuor GA, Asare F, Gyanfosu L - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Photomicrographs of the stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after treatment with various doses of Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Adenia cissampeloides extract. (a) Control showed normal architecture, intact gastric mucosa (GM), sub mucosa (SM), gastric pits (G) and surface epithelium (SE), and collagen fibres (C); (b) 250 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal stomach architecture with no signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in gastric pits, intact mucosa and sub mucosa; (c) 500 mg/kg PAE treatment revealing normal stomach architecture with even distribution of cells and gastric pits. Intact epithelium, mucosa and sub mucosa; (d) 1000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with no superficial erosion. Gastric pits appeared normal with no unusual increase in depth or spacing, (e) 2000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with even distribution of cellular components and gastric pits, no visible signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in mucosa and sub mucosa. H and E staining, Objective magnification: ×10
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835990&req=5

Figure 9: Photomicrographs of the stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after treatment with various doses of Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Adenia cissampeloides extract. (a) Control showed normal architecture, intact gastric mucosa (GM), sub mucosa (SM), gastric pits (G) and surface epithelium (SE), and collagen fibres (C); (b) 250 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal stomach architecture with no signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in gastric pits, intact mucosa and sub mucosa; (c) 500 mg/kg PAE treatment revealing normal stomach architecture with even distribution of cells and gastric pits. Intact epithelium, mucosa and sub mucosa; (d) 1000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with no superficial erosion. Gastric pits appeared normal with no unusual increase in depth or spacing, (e) 2000 mg/kg PAE treatment showed normal architecture with even distribution of cellular components and gastric pits, no visible signs of erosion of epithelium or changes in mucosa and sub mucosa. H and E staining, Objective magnification: ×10
Mentions: The hepatic tissue of control group revealed normal architecture showing normal hepatocytes with nuclei, central and portal veins. Sinusoids appeared to radiate in a divergent fashion from a focal point towards the peripheries [Figure 7]. Treatment with 250 mg/kg PAE revealed no difference in the structural integrity of hepatic tissue compared with control [Figure 7]. PAE treatment at 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg also showed normal central and portal veins, hepatocytes, and nuclei; however, there was sinusoid dilatation, from minor to major, compared with the control. Portal veins also appeared dilated with 2000 mg/kg PAE treatment [Figure 7]. Renal tissue in control animals revealed normal tissue architecture, with normal sized glomerulus, urinary space, distal and proximal tubules with nuclei and Bowman’s capsule [Figure 8]. PAE treatments at 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg showed no significant change in renal tissue architecture compared with the control [Figure 8]. The stomach also showed normal tissue architecture with normal gastric cells, mucosa and sub mucosa in all PAE treatments [Figure 9] compared with control [Figure 9]. Gastric epithelial cells appeared normal with no signs of erosion or tissue destruction and evenly spaced gastric pits.

Bottom Line: The PAE treatment resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in BT and CT in vivo compared with control.The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was <2000 mg/kg when given orally.PAE has anticoagulant effect in vitro and is safe to use at oral doses <2000 mg/kg.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently available therapeutic options for thromboembolic disorders are often very expensive and are associated with unfavorable side effects.

Aim: To establish the anticoagulant effect and safety profile of an extract made from of the root bark of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms and the aerial part of Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Harms (PAE).

Materials and methods: PAE (0.5-2.0 g/L) effect on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were evaluated on whole blood drawn from the marginal ear vein of New Zealand White rabbits. Effect of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg) on bleeding time (BT) and clotting time (CT) in Sprague-Dawley rats were also assessed. Histopathological, hematological, and liver function studies were also carried out to assess the safety for use of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg).

Results: PAE had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on PT, but resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in aPTT. The PAE treatment resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in BT and CT in vivo compared with control. Safety studies indicated no deaths with PAE treatment with hematological and liver function tests being normal. Histological studies revealed pathological changes in the liver at a PAE treatment dose of 2000 mg/kg but all doses had no detrimental effect on kidney and stomach tissue. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was <2000 mg/kg when given orally.

Conclusion: PAE has anticoagulant effect in vitro and is safe to use at oral doses <2000 mg/kg.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus