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Imbalance of the antioxidative system by plumbagin and Plumbago indica L. extract induces hepatotoxicity in mice.

Sukkasem N, Chatuphonprasert W, Tatiya-Aphiradee N, Jarukamjorn K - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Bottom Line: Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined.Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities.The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Group for Pharmaceutical Activities of Natural Products using Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Khon Kaen University.

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Plumbago indica (PI) L. and its active constituent, plumbagin, has been traditionally claimed for several pharmacological activities; however, there is little information regarding their toxicity. The present study aims to examine the effects of plumbagin and PI extract (PI) on hepatic histomorphology and antioxidative system in mice.

Materials and methods: Adult male intelligent character recognition mice were intragastrically administered plumbagin (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day) or PI (20, 200, and 1,000 mg/kg/day) consecutively for 14 days. Hepatic histomorphology was examined. Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined.

Results: Plumbagin and PI concentration-dependently induced hepatic injury based on histopathological changes via imbalance of antioxidative system. Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin.

Conclusion: Plumbagin and PI caused hepatotoxic effects in the mice by unbalancing of the redox defense system. Therefore, plumbagin and PI-containing supplements should be used cautiously, especially when consumed in high quantities or for long periods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

High-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram of the plumbagin standard and the Plumbago indica extract. (a) Chromatogram of the plumbagin standard at a concentration of 25 mg/mL, (b) Chromatogram of the P. indica extract at a concentration of 24.25 mg/mL
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Figure 1: High-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram of the plumbagin standard and the Plumbago indica extract. (a) Chromatogram of the plumbagin standard at a concentration of 25 mg/mL, (b) Chromatogram of the P. indica extract at a concentration of 24.25 mg/mL

Mentions: The PI extract was quantitatively determined for the content of plumbagin using the HPLC method, in which the validation of the method was achieved within a linearity range of 1-100 mg/mL (R2 = 0.9990). The precision of the method expressed as the coefficient of variation within the linearity range were 0.69 ± 0.29% (for within-day) and 0.87 ± 0.42% (for between-day). The accuracy was 102.16 ± 1.40% with the limit of determination and the limit of quantification of 10 and 34 ng/mL, respectively. The chromatograms of the plumbagin standard (retention time of 5.538 min, Figure 1a) and the PI extract (retention time of 5.494 min, Figure 1b) revealed that the major constituent in the PI extract was plumbagin. The content of plumbagin in the PI extract was 0.18 ± 0.01% dry weight extract.


Imbalance of the antioxidative system by plumbagin and Plumbago indica L. extract induces hepatotoxicity in mice.

Sukkasem N, Chatuphonprasert W, Tatiya-Aphiradee N, Jarukamjorn K - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

High-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram of the plumbagin standard and the Plumbago indica extract. (a) Chromatogram of the plumbagin standard at a concentration of 25 mg/mL, (b) Chromatogram of the P. indica extract at a concentration of 24.25 mg/mL
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835988&req=5

Figure 1: High-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram of the plumbagin standard and the Plumbago indica extract. (a) Chromatogram of the plumbagin standard at a concentration of 25 mg/mL, (b) Chromatogram of the P. indica extract at a concentration of 24.25 mg/mL
Mentions: The PI extract was quantitatively determined for the content of plumbagin using the HPLC method, in which the validation of the method was achieved within a linearity range of 1-100 mg/mL (R2 = 0.9990). The precision of the method expressed as the coefficient of variation within the linearity range were 0.69 ± 0.29% (for within-day) and 0.87 ± 0.42% (for between-day). The accuracy was 102.16 ± 1.40% with the limit of determination and the limit of quantification of 10 and 34 ng/mL, respectively. The chromatograms of the plumbagin standard (retention time of 5.538 min, Figure 1a) and the PI extract (retention time of 5.494 min, Figure 1b) revealed that the major constituent in the PI extract was plumbagin. The content of plumbagin in the PI extract was 0.18 ± 0.01% dry weight extract.

Bottom Line: Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined.Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities.The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Group for Pharmaceutical Activities of Natural Products using Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Khon Kaen University.

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Plumbago indica (PI) L. and its active constituent, plumbagin, has been traditionally claimed for several pharmacological activities; however, there is little information regarding their toxicity. The present study aims to examine the effects of plumbagin and PI extract (PI) on hepatic histomorphology and antioxidative system in mice.

Materials and methods: Adult male intelligent character recognition mice were intragastrically administered plumbagin (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day) or PI (20, 200, and 1,000 mg/kg/day) consecutively for 14 days. Hepatic histomorphology was examined. Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined.

Results: Plumbagin and PI concentration-dependently induced hepatic injury based on histopathological changes via imbalance of antioxidative system. Plumbagin and PI significantly increased plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and GPx activity but significantly decreased hepatic SOD and CAT activities. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced by plumbagin.

Conclusion: Plumbagin and PI caused hepatotoxic effects in the mice by unbalancing of the redox defense system. Therefore, plumbagin and PI-containing supplements should be used cautiously, especially when consumed in high quantities or for long periods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus