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Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula.

Al-Marby A, Ejike CE, Nasim MJ, Awadh-Ali NA, Al-Badani RA, Alghamdi GM, Jacob C - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Bottom Line: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations.Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml.The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Saarland, Campus B2 1, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Saarland, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Aim/background: The development of resistance to synthetic drugs by target organisms is a major challenge facing medicine, yet locked within plants are phytochemicals used in herbal medicine (especially in the Arabian Peninsula) that may find application in this regard. In pursuit of unlocking these "hidden treasures," the methanol extracts of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants used in the Arabian Peninsula were screened for antimicrobial activities.

Materials and methods: The nematicidal, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined using appropriate assays. Steinernema feltiae, Staphylococcus carnosus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml were tested and appropriate statistical tests performed on the data generated.

Results: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Extracts of C. myrrha and C. murale had the most active antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 12-15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5 mg/ml for both bacteria. Extracts of the leaves of A. biebersteinii were the most active fungicide, giving an MIC of 1.5 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Nematicidal activity of the most active plant extracts against the model nematode S. feltiae
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Figure 2: Nematicidal activity of the most active plant extracts against the model nematode S. feltiae

Mentions: While some extracts showed considerable activity against S. feltiae, others were hardly active. The extract from the leaves of S. incanum was the most active as it resulted in statistically significant mortality of the nematodes at the lowest concentration tested (0.5 mg/ml) [Figure 2]. Purely for comparison: this concentration corresponds to 2 mM of a chemically pure compound with a molecular weight of 250 g/mol. The next most active extracts in order of activity were those from S. incanum and W. somnifera fruits, R. nervosus leaves, P. crispa aerial parts, and resins of C. myrrha, each showing statistically significant nematicidal activity at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. This was followed by extracts from E. helioscopia, D. viscosa, A. biebersteinii, P. granatum, D. socotrana, and D. cinnabari, each with statistically significant nematicidal activity at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. In contrast, extracts from C. murale (10 mg/ml), L. dentata (10 mg/ml), and C. procera (20 mg/ml) were hardly effective as nematicides.


Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula.

Al-Marby A, Ejike CE, Nasim MJ, Awadh-Ali NA, Al-Badani RA, Alghamdi GM, Jacob C - J Intercult Ethnopharmacol (2016)

Nematicidal activity of the most active plant extracts against the model nematode S. feltiae
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835985&req=5

Figure 2: Nematicidal activity of the most active plant extracts against the model nematode S. feltiae
Mentions: While some extracts showed considerable activity against S. feltiae, others were hardly active. The extract from the leaves of S. incanum was the most active as it resulted in statistically significant mortality of the nematodes at the lowest concentration tested (0.5 mg/ml) [Figure 2]. Purely for comparison: this concentration corresponds to 2 mM of a chemically pure compound with a molecular weight of 250 g/mol. The next most active extracts in order of activity were those from S. incanum and W. somnifera fruits, R. nervosus leaves, P. crispa aerial parts, and resins of C. myrrha, each showing statistically significant nematicidal activity at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. This was followed by extracts from E. helioscopia, D. viscosa, A. biebersteinii, P. granatum, D. socotrana, and D. cinnabari, each with statistically significant nematicidal activity at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. In contrast, extracts from C. murale (10 mg/ml), L. dentata (10 mg/ml), and C. procera (20 mg/ml) were hardly effective as nematicides.

Bottom Line: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations.Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml.The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Saarland, Campus B2 1, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Saarland, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Aim/background: The development of resistance to synthetic drugs by target organisms is a major challenge facing medicine, yet locked within plants are phytochemicals used in herbal medicine (especially in the Arabian Peninsula) that may find application in this regard. In pursuit of unlocking these "hidden treasures," the methanol extracts of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants used in the Arabian Peninsula were screened for antimicrobial activities.

Materials and methods: The nematicidal, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined using appropriate assays. Steinernema feltiae, Staphylococcus carnosus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml were tested and appropriate statistical tests performed on the data generated.

Results: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Extracts of C. myrrha and C. murale had the most active antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 12-15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5 mg/ml for both bacteria. Extracts of the leaves of A. biebersteinii were the most active fungicide, giving an MIC of 1.5 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus