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Blood meal sources of wild and domestic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia: connectivity between cycles of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

Buitrago R, Bosseno MF, Depickère S, Waleckx E, Salas R, Aliaga C, Barnabé C, Brenière SF - Parasit Vectors (2016)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission.The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment.These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRD, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR INTERTRYP, (IRD-CIRAD), Interactions hôtes-vecteurs-parasites-environnement dans les maladies tropicales négligées dues aux trypanosomatidés, 911 Av. Agropolis, Montpellier, cédex 5, 34394, France. rosiob8@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. Its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted through the contaminated faeces of blood-sucking insects called triatomines. Triatoma infestans is the main vector in various countries in South America and recently, several foci of wild populations of this species have been described in Bolivia and other countries. These wild populations are suspected of affecting the success of insecticide control campaigns being carried out in South America. To assess the risk that these T. infestans populations pose to human health, it is helpful to determine blood meal sources.

Methods: In the present work, blood meals were identified in various Bolivian wild T. infestans populations and in three specific areas, in both wild and intra-peridomestic populations to assess the links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. PCR-HDA and sequencing of Cytb gene were used to identify these blood meal sources.

Results and discussion: Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as wild blood meal sources. Of those, the most prevalent species were two Andean endemic rodents, Octodontomys gliroides (36%) and Galea musteloides (30%), while humans were the third most prevalent source (18.7%). Of 163 blood meals from peridomestic areas, more than half were chickens, and the others were generally domestic animals or humans. Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission.

Conclusion: The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment. These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Vertebrate blood sources of wild T. infestans identified by PCR-HDA and sequencing
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Fig2: Vertebrate blood sources of wild T. infestans identified by PCR-HDA and sequencing

Mentions: Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as blood meal sources of wild T. infestans: 10 mammal species, two bird species, and two reptiles (Table 2). The most prevalent blood meal was O. gliroides (52/144, 36.6 %), a rodent of the family Octodontidae, indigenous to the Andes (Fig. 2). Seventy-three percent of these blood meal sources were detected in 2nd to 5th nymphal instars of wild T. infestans caught in the Inter-Andean Dry Forests and the Prepuna eco regions. The second most prevalent species was G. musteloides (43/144, 30.5 %), a rodent of the family Caviidae. Sixty-eight percent of these blood meal sources were identified in 3rd to 5th nymphal instars. The third most prevalent species was Homo sapiens (27/144, 18.7 %), as previously detailed in Buitrago et al. (2013) [17]. Most of the human blood meals (66.7 %) were identified in 2nd to 5th nymphal instars captured in areas close to (50–200 m) or more distant from (~400–800 m) human habitation, in various ecotopes such as sedimentary cracks surrounded by fields of crops, prickly pear fields, sedimentary cliffs and rocky outcrops. The other identified blood meal sources included viscacha (Lagidium viscacia), four other rodent species, one species of wild bird and three species of domestic animals in 4th nymphal instars (a donkey at 50 m from the human habitat, a cat at 120 m and a chicken at 200 m) (Table 2, Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Blood meal sources of wild and domestic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia: connectivity between cycles of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

Buitrago R, Bosseno MF, Depickère S, Waleckx E, Salas R, Aliaga C, Barnabé C, Brenière SF - Parasit Vectors (2016)

Vertebrate blood sources of wild T. infestans identified by PCR-HDA and sequencing
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835887&req=5

Fig2: Vertebrate blood sources of wild T. infestans identified by PCR-HDA and sequencing
Mentions: Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as blood meal sources of wild T. infestans: 10 mammal species, two bird species, and two reptiles (Table 2). The most prevalent blood meal was O. gliroides (52/144, 36.6 %), a rodent of the family Octodontidae, indigenous to the Andes (Fig. 2). Seventy-three percent of these blood meal sources were detected in 2nd to 5th nymphal instars of wild T. infestans caught in the Inter-Andean Dry Forests and the Prepuna eco regions. The second most prevalent species was G. musteloides (43/144, 30.5 %), a rodent of the family Caviidae. Sixty-eight percent of these blood meal sources were identified in 3rd to 5th nymphal instars. The third most prevalent species was Homo sapiens (27/144, 18.7 %), as previously detailed in Buitrago et al. (2013) [17]. Most of the human blood meals (66.7 %) were identified in 2nd to 5th nymphal instars captured in areas close to (50–200 m) or more distant from (~400–800 m) human habitation, in various ecotopes such as sedimentary cracks surrounded by fields of crops, prickly pear fields, sedimentary cliffs and rocky outcrops. The other identified blood meal sources included viscacha (Lagidium viscacia), four other rodent species, one species of wild bird and three species of domestic animals in 4th nymphal instars (a donkey at 50 m from the human habitat, a cat at 120 m and a chicken at 200 m) (Table 2, Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission.The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment.These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IRD, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR INTERTRYP, (IRD-CIRAD), Interactions hôtes-vecteurs-parasites-environnement dans les maladies tropicales négligées dues aux trypanosomatidés, 911 Av. Agropolis, Montpellier, cédex 5, 34394, France. rosiob8@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. Its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted through the contaminated faeces of blood-sucking insects called triatomines. Triatoma infestans is the main vector in various countries in South America and recently, several foci of wild populations of this species have been described in Bolivia and other countries. These wild populations are suspected of affecting the success of insecticide control campaigns being carried out in South America. To assess the risk that these T. infestans populations pose to human health, it is helpful to determine blood meal sources.

Methods: In the present work, blood meals were identified in various Bolivian wild T. infestans populations and in three specific areas, in both wild and intra-peridomestic populations to assess the links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. PCR-HDA and sequencing of Cytb gene were used to identify these blood meal sources.

Results and discussion: Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as wild blood meal sources. Of those, the most prevalent species were two Andean endemic rodents, Octodontomys gliroides (36%) and Galea musteloides (30%), while humans were the third most prevalent source (18.7%). Of 163 blood meals from peridomestic areas, more than half were chickens, and the others were generally domestic animals or humans. Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission.

Conclusion: The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment. These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus