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Three-dimensional multiway power dividers based on transformation optics.

Wu YL, Zhuang Z, Deng L, Liu YA - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: It comprises of several nonisotropic mediums and one isotropic medium without any lumped and distributed elements.In addition, the location of the split point can be employed to obtain unequal power dividers.The excellent simulated results verify the novel design method for power dividers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box. 282, 100876, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) multiway power dividers based on transformation optical theory are proposed in this paper. It comprises of several nonisotropic mediums and one isotropic medium without any lumped and distributed elements. By using finite embedded coordinate transformations, the incident beam can be split and bent arbitrarily in order to achieve effective power division and transmission. In addition, the location of the split point can be employed to obtain unequal power dividers. Finally, several typical examples of the generalized power divider without limitation in 3D space are performed, which shows that the proposed power divider can implement required functions with arbitrary power division and arbitrary transmission paths. The excellent simulated results verify the novel design method for power dividers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of the proposed 2D-TWPD.(a) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±1 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Meanwhile, the power division can be clearly seen in different transformation optical mediums. (b) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±0.7 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Compared with Fig. 2a, different transmission paths can be controlled by adjusting the value of a.
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f2: Results of the proposed 2D-TWPD.(a) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±1 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Meanwhile, the power division can be clearly seen in different transformation optical mediums. (b) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±0.7 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Compared with Fig. 2a, different transmission paths can be controlled by adjusting the value of a.

Mentions: As can be clearly seen from equation (5), the nonisotropic material parameters are only dependent on a. Hence, the transmission paths of TWPD can be controlled by a freely. To confirm the validity of this method, we carry out full wave simulations using the multiphysics simulation tool as a finite element solver. In all numerical calculations, the transformation optics is contained within a rectangular area with perfectly matched layer boundaries. The operating frequency of the wave used in these simulations is 2.3 GHz. Besides, the port boundary is used to act as an excitation source of electric field with input power of 1 W. Fig. 2 shows the spatial distribution of the electric field and power flow of 2D equal TWPD with different transmission paths, respectively. In Fig. 2a, the nonisotropic material parameters are determined by a = ±1 m while the corresponding parameters are calculated for a = ±0.7 m in Fig. 2b. Meanwhile, the input power in Fig. 2a is calculated by line integral as 0.92 W, whereas the power of two output ports is both 0.44 W, respectively. Similarly, the input power in Fig. 2b can be obtained by line integral as 0.96 W while the power of two output ports is both 0.46 W. In addition, the sizes of 2D-TWPDs are depicted as Fig. 2. It should be noted that the lengths along x are both set as 1 m for comparing the different transmission paths with different values of a, whereas the length along y of incident field may not be limited strictly. Thus, the sizes of the proposed 2D-TWPDs except for the incident field are about 2.2 m2 (2 × 1.1 m2) and 1.8 m2 (2 × 0.9 m2), respectively. It is worth noting that the size of the proposed 2D-TWPD is very large at the operation frequency of 2.3 GHz while the main purpose for introducing the design example of the 2D-TWPD is to more clearly explain the design details from the transformation-optics view for the proposed 3D-MWPD. Size minimization is only for the 3D-MWPD case.


Three-dimensional multiway power dividers based on transformation optics.

Wu YL, Zhuang Z, Deng L, Liu YA - Sci Rep (2016)

Results of the proposed 2D-TWPD.(a) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±1 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Meanwhile, the power division can be clearly seen in different transformation optical mediums. (b) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±0.7 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Compared with Fig. 2a, different transmission paths can be controlled by adjusting the value of a.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835709&req=5

f2: Results of the proposed 2D-TWPD.(a) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±1 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Meanwhile, the power division can be clearly seen in different transformation optical mediums. (b) Electric field and power flow distributions of the 2D-TWPD with a = ±0.7 m. The corresponding z-component of the electric field operating at 2.3 GHz is illustrated. Compared with Fig. 2a, different transmission paths can be controlled by adjusting the value of a.
Mentions: As can be clearly seen from equation (5), the nonisotropic material parameters are only dependent on a. Hence, the transmission paths of TWPD can be controlled by a freely. To confirm the validity of this method, we carry out full wave simulations using the multiphysics simulation tool as a finite element solver. In all numerical calculations, the transformation optics is contained within a rectangular area with perfectly matched layer boundaries. The operating frequency of the wave used in these simulations is 2.3 GHz. Besides, the port boundary is used to act as an excitation source of electric field with input power of 1 W. Fig. 2 shows the spatial distribution of the electric field and power flow of 2D equal TWPD with different transmission paths, respectively. In Fig. 2a, the nonisotropic material parameters are determined by a = ±1 m while the corresponding parameters are calculated for a = ±0.7 m in Fig. 2b. Meanwhile, the input power in Fig. 2a is calculated by line integral as 0.92 W, whereas the power of two output ports is both 0.44 W, respectively. Similarly, the input power in Fig. 2b can be obtained by line integral as 0.96 W while the power of two output ports is both 0.46 W. In addition, the sizes of 2D-TWPDs are depicted as Fig. 2. It should be noted that the lengths along x are both set as 1 m for comparing the different transmission paths with different values of a, whereas the length along y of incident field may not be limited strictly. Thus, the sizes of the proposed 2D-TWPDs except for the incident field are about 2.2 m2 (2 × 1.1 m2) and 1.8 m2 (2 × 0.9 m2), respectively. It is worth noting that the size of the proposed 2D-TWPD is very large at the operation frequency of 2.3 GHz while the main purpose for introducing the design example of the 2D-TWPD is to more clearly explain the design details from the transformation-optics view for the proposed 3D-MWPD. Size minimization is only for the 3D-MWPD case.

Bottom Line: It comprises of several nonisotropic mediums and one isotropic medium without any lumped and distributed elements.In addition, the location of the split point can be employed to obtain unequal power dividers.The excellent simulated results verify the novel design method for power dividers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box. 282, 100876, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) multiway power dividers based on transformation optical theory are proposed in this paper. It comprises of several nonisotropic mediums and one isotropic medium without any lumped and distributed elements. By using finite embedded coordinate transformations, the incident beam can be split and bent arbitrarily in order to achieve effective power division and transmission. In addition, the location of the split point can be employed to obtain unequal power dividers. Finally, several typical examples of the generalized power divider without limitation in 3D space are performed, which shows that the proposed power divider can implement required functions with arbitrary power division and arbitrary transmission paths. The excellent simulated results verify the novel design method for power dividers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus