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Metabotypes with properly functioning mitochondria and anti-inflammation predict extended productive life span in dairy cows.

Huber K, Dänicke S, Rehage J, Sauerwein H, Otto W, Rolle-Kampczyk U, von Bergen M - Sci Rep (2016)

Bottom Line: In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans.These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria.The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The failure to adapt metabolism to the homeorhetic demands of lactation is considered as a main factor in reducing the productive life span of dairy cows. The so far defined markers of production performance and metabolic health in dairy cows do not predict the length of productive life span satisfyingly. This study aimed to identify novel pathways and biomarkers related to productive life in dairy cows by means of (targeted) metabolomics. In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans. These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria. The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life.

No MeSH data available.


Tryptophan, kynurenine and biogenic amines in healthy (H) and left productive life early (LE) cows.Serum tryptophan (a), kynurenine (b), kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp) (c), carnosine (d), sarcosine (e) and spermidine (f) in cows that left productive life early (LE, black bars, n = 7–8) or were healthy (H, grey bars, n = 8–10) as influenced by parturition and onset of lactation. Given were means ± SEM; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Results of Two-Way ANOVA and Sidak’s multi comparison posttest (Graphpad.prism version 6.0) demonstrate effects of time and grouping and point out interactions between them (results see Table 4 below).
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f5: Tryptophan, kynurenine and biogenic amines in healthy (H) and left productive life early (LE) cows.Serum tryptophan (a), kynurenine (b), kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp) (c), carnosine (d), sarcosine (e) and spermidine (f) in cows that left productive life early (LE, black bars, n = 7–8) or were healthy (H, grey bars, n = 8–10) as influenced by parturition and onset of lactation. Given were means ± SEM; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Results of Two-Way ANOVA and Sidak’s multi comparison posttest (Graphpad.prism version 6.0) demonstrate effects of time and grouping and point out interactions between them (results see Table 4 below).

Mentions: The amino acid Trp was significantly higher in H cows, while its degradation product, Kyn was lower demonstrating less activated Trp degradation (Fig. 5a,b). Consequently, the Kyn/Trp ratio, an indicator of low-grade chronic inflammation in humans21, was lower in H cows (Fig. 5c). In contrast, LE cows had higher Kyn/Trp ratios throughout the periparturient period with a massively higher value shortly after parturition. This enhanced Trp degradation might reflect the inability of LE cows to avoid metabolic imbalance in a very early period of production, most likely based on a low capacity to protect mitochondria by an effective release of acylcarnitines. Mitochondrial dysfunction caused secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which stimulated Trp degradation to Kyn by the indoleamine 2,3 diaminooxidase (IDO-1)22. This new pathway may indicate low-grade chronic inflammation in LE cows, which however did not lead to clinically obvious diseases within the experimental period, but compromised the length of their productive life span. Furthermore, Kyn and its degradation intermediates were involved in the development of insulin resistance, especially in obese humans22, in the process of inflammageing23 and also in modulation of immune cell function in humans and cows2425 - pathways which might also be affected in high-yielding dairy cows. Thus, the metabolites of the Kyn/Trp pathway should in the future also be considered as molecules discriminating balanced and non-balanced metabolic phenotypes in dairy cows.


Metabotypes with properly functioning mitochondria and anti-inflammation predict extended productive life span in dairy cows.

Huber K, Dänicke S, Rehage J, Sauerwein H, Otto W, Rolle-Kampczyk U, von Bergen M - Sci Rep (2016)

Tryptophan, kynurenine and biogenic amines in healthy (H) and left productive life early (LE) cows.Serum tryptophan (a), kynurenine (b), kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp) (c), carnosine (d), sarcosine (e) and spermidine (f) in cows that left productive life early (LE, black bars, n = 7–8) or were healthy (H, grey bars, n = 8–10) as influenced by parturition and onset of lactation. Given were means ± SEM; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Results of Two-Way ANOVA and Sidak’s multi comparison posttest (Graphpad.prism version 6.0) demonstrate effects of time and grouping and point out interactions between them (results see Table 4 below).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835701&req=5

f5: Tryptophan, kynurenine and biogenic amines in healthy (H) and left productive life early (LE) cows.Serum tryptophan (a), kynurenine (b), kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp) (c), carnosine (d), sarcosine (e) and spermidine (f) in cows that left productive life early (LE, black bars, n = 7–8) or were healthy (H, grey bars, n = 8–10) as influenced by parturition and onset of lactation. Given were means ± SEM; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Results of Two-Way ANOVA and Sidak’s multi comparison posttest (Graphpad.prism version 6.0) demonstrate effects of time and grouping and point out interactions between them (results see Table 4 below).
Mentions: The amino acid Trp was significantly higher in H cows, while its degradation product, Kyn was lower demonstrating less activated Trp degradation (Fig. 5a,b). Consequently, the Kyn/Trp ratio, an indicator of low-grade chronic inflammation in humans21, was lower in H cows (Fig. 5c). In contrast, LE cows had higher Kyn/Trp ratios throughout the periparturient period with a massively higher value shortly after parturition. This enhanced Trp degradation might reflect the inability of LE cows to avoid metabolic imbalance in a very early period of production, most likely based on a low capacity to protect mitochondria by an effective release of acylcarnitines. Mitochondrial dysfunction caused secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which stimulated Trp degradation to Kyn by the indoleamine 2,3 diaminooxidase (IDO-1)22. This new pathway may indicate low-grade chronic inflammation in LE cows, which however did not lead to clinically obvious diseases within the experimental period, but compromised the length of their productive life span. Furthermore, Kyn and its degradation intermediates were involved in the development of insulin resistance, especially in obese humans22, in the process of inflammageing23 and also in modulation of immune cell function in humans and cows2425 - pathways which might also be affected in high-yielding dairy cows. Thus, the metabolites of the Kyn/Trp pathway should in the future also be considered as molecules discriminating balanced and non-balanced metabolic phenotypes in dairy cows.

Bottom Line: In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans.These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria.The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The failure to adapt metabolism to the homeorhetic demands of lactation is considered as a main factor in reducing the productive life span of dairy cows. The so far defined markers of production performance and metabolic health in dairy cows do not predict the length of productive life span satisfyingly. This study aimed to identify novel pathways and biomarkers related to productive life in dairy cows by means of (targeted) metabolomics. In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans. These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria. The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life.

No MeSH data available.