Limits...
Organotypic Cultures as a Model to Study Adult Neurogenesis in CNS Disorders.

Cavaliere F, Benito-Muñoz M, Matute C - Stem Cells Int (2016)

Bottom Line: Numerous techniques and animal models have been developed to demonstrate and observe neural regeneration but, in order to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms and to characterize multiple types of cell populations involved in the activation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, investigators have to turn to in vitro models.Organotypic cultures best recapitulate the 3D organization of the CNS and can be explored taking advantage of many techniques.As an example, we will focus on the possibilities these cultures offer to study the pathophysiology of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Neurociencias, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), 48940 Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Neural regeneration resides in certain specific regions of adult CNS. Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life, especially from the subgranular zone of hippocampus and the subventricular zone, and can be modulated in physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous techniques and animal models have been developed to demonstrate and observe neural regeneration but, in order to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms and to characterize multiple types of cell populations involved in the activation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, investigators have to turn to in vitro models. Organotypic cultures best recapitulate the 3D organization of the CNS and can be explored taking advantage of many techniques. Here, we review the use of organotypic cultures as a reliable and well defined method to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. As an example, we will focus on the possibilities these cultures offer to study the pathophysiology of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Different organotypic slices can be obtained from P2 to P7 postnatal forebrain or cerebellum by coronal sections of 350–400 μm (a). In (b), the brain sectioning to obtain 45° transversal sections of s. nigra/striatum/SVZ/cortex (sn, substantia nigra; cp, caudate putamen; lv, lateral ventricle; cx, cortex) used to model PD is shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835641&req=5

fig1: Different organotypic slices can be obtained from P2 to P7 postnatal forebrain or cerebellum by coronal sections of 350–400 μm (a). In (b), the brain sectioning to obtain 45° transversal sections of s. nigra/striatum/SVZ/cortex (sn, substantia nigra; cp, caudate putamen; lv, lateral ventricle; cx, cortex) used to model PD is shown.

Mentions: At the beginning of the 90s, Stoppini and colleagues [13] published a new method to cultivate organotypic slices. In this method, brain slices were placed on a semiporous membrane and cultivated at the air-liquid interface. The absence of clot facilitates the studies of synaptic reorganization and became a useful tool to study plasticity and sprouting already during the first days of culture. The real advantage of this technique is that cultures are easily prepared and offer great advantages when a 3D structure is desired (from an initial 400 μm thickness, slices are cultivated up to 100–150 μm). As described more in detail below, the air-liquid interface has become a key instrument to study adult neurogenesis. Organotypic slices can be obtained from different brain regions (as described in Figure 1), but for the study of adult neurogenesis in normal and pathological conditions, the hippocampal region containing the SGZ and the slices containing the SVZ are most preferred. Thus, for example, neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease or Parkinson's disease can be studied in hippocampus/entorhinal cortex or s. nigra/striatum/SVZ/cortex slices [14, 15]. Organotypic cultures match the tridimensional space where neural progenitors migrate to reach maturation in vivo. In the paper by Vergni and colleagues [16], we ideally represented the slice culture comprising subventricular zone, as the spatial extension to elaborate a mathematical model to describe neuroblasts activation and migration following oxygen and glucose deprivation.


Organotypic Cultures as a Model to Study Adult Neurogenesis in CNS Disorders.

Cavaliere F, Benito-Muñoz M, Matute C - Stem Cells Int (2016)

Different organotypic slices can be obtained from P2 to P7 postnatal forebrain or cerebellum by coronal sections of 350–400 μm (a). In (b), the brain sectioning to obtain 45° transversal sections of s. nigra/striatum/SVZ/cortex (sn, substantia nigra; cp, caudate putamen; lv, lateral ventricle; cx, cortex) used to model PD is shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835641&req=5

fig1: Different organotypic slices can be obtained from P2 to P7 postnatal forebrain or cerebellum by coronal sections of 350–400 μm (a). In (b), the brain sectioning to obtain 45° transversal sections of s. nigra/striatum/SVZ/cortex (sn, substantia nigra; cp, caudate putamen; lv, lateral ventricle; cx, cortex) used to model PD is shown.
Mentions: At the beginning of the 90s, Stoppini and colleagues [13] published a new method to cultivate organotypic slices. In this method, brain slices were placed on a semiporous membrane and cultivated at the air-liquid interface. The absence of clot facilitates the studies of synaptic reorganization and became a useful tool to study plasticity and sprouting already during the first days of culture. The real advantage of this technique is that cultures are easily prepared and offer great advantages when a 3D structure is desired (from an initial 400 μm thickness, slices are cultivated up to 100–150 μm). As described more in detail below, the air-liquid interface has become a key instrument to study adult neurogenesis. Organotypic slices can be obtained from different brain regions (as described in Figure 1), but for the study of adult neurogenesis in normal and pathological conditions, the hippocampal region containing the SGZ and the slices containing the SVZ are most preferred. Thus, for example, neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease or Parkinson's disease can be studied in hippocampus/entorhinal cortex or s. nigra/striatum/SVZ/cortex slices [14, 15]. Organotypic cultures match the tridimensional space where neural progenitors migrate to reach maturation in vivo. In the paper by Vergni and colleagues [16], we ideally represented the slice culture comprising subventricular zone, as the spatial extension to elaborate a mathematical model to describe neuroblasts activation and migration following oxygen and glucose deprivation.

Bottom Line: Numerous techniques and animal models have been developed to demonstrate and observe neural regeneration but, in order to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms and to characterize multiple types of cell populations involved in the activation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, investigators have to turn to in vitro models.Organotypic cultures best recapitulate the 3D organization of the CNS and can be explored taking advantage of many techniques.As an example, we will focus on the possibilities these cultures offer to study the pathophysiology of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Neurociencias, Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), 48940 Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Neural regeneration resides in certain specific regions of adult CNS. Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life, especially from the subgranular zone of hippocampus and the subventricular zone, and can be modulated in physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous techniques and animal models have been developed to demonstrate and observe neural regeneration but, in order to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms and to characterize multiple types of cell populations involved in the activation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, investigators have to turn to in vitro models. Organotypic cultures best recapitulate the 3D organization of the CNS and can be explored taking advantage of many techniques. Here, we review the use of organotypic cultures as a reliable and well defined method to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. As an example, we will focus on the possibilities these cultures offer to study the pathophysiology of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus