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Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

RF CMOS IC implementation of the circulator.(a) A simplified circuit diagram of the circulator is shown. Electronic commutation across a bank of N=8 capacitors is performed using reciprocal, passive transistor-based switches without direct-current bias. The staggered commutated network enables miniaturization of the unmodulated 3λ/4 ring using three C-L-C sections. (b) The microphotograph of the fabricated IC is shown along with a close-up photograph of the fabricated printed circuit board with the IC housed in a quad-flat no-leads (QFN) package and interfaced with the off-chip inductors. The largest dimension of the prototype is 5 mm or λ/80 at the operating frequency of 750 MHz.
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f6: RF CMOS IC implementation of the circulator.(a) A simplified circuit diagram of the circulator is shown. Electronic commutation across a bank of N=8 capacitors is performed using reciprocal, passive transistor-based switches without direct-current bias. The staggered commutated network enables miniaturization of the unmodulated 3λ/4 ring using three C-L-C sections. (b) The microphotograph of the fabricated IC is shown along with a close-up photograph of the fabricated printed circuit board with the IC housed in a quad-flat no-leads (QFN) package and interfaced with the off-chip inductors. The largest dimension of the prototype is 5 mm or λ/80 at the operating frequency of 750 MHz.

Mentions: We constructed a prototype at RF using conventional 65 nm CMOS IC technology to implement the electronic commutation across a bank of N=8 capacitors, and three lumped C-L-C networks to miniaturize the 3λ/4 transmission line ring (Fig. 6). Miniaturization is eased by the fact that the 3λ/4 ring is unmodulated, resulting in an overall structure that has a maximum dimension of ≈λ/80 at the operating frequency of 750 MHz. The capacitors of the C-L-C networks are also incorporated in the IC, leaving the three inductors as the only off-chip components. The commutated capacitors are chosen to be 26 pF each, roughly six times (Z0=50 Ω), and are each realized on chip as a pair of 80 μm × 80 μm metal–insulator–metal capacitors. The total size of the staggered commutated network is ∼320 μm × 320 μm (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250). The control signals for the staggered commutation are generated using on-chip clock generation circuitry that is described in additional detail in the Methods section.


Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

RF CMOS IC implementation of the circulator.(a) A simplified circuit diagram of the circulator is shown. Electronic commutation across a bank of N=8 capacitors is performed using reciprocal, passive transistor-based switches without direct-current bias. The staggered commutated network enables miniaturization of the unmodulated 3λ/4 ring using three C-L-C sections. (b) The microphotograph of the fabricated IC is shown along with a close-up photograph of the fabricated printed circuit board with the IC housed in a quad-flat no-leads (QFN) package and interfaced with the off-chip inductors. The largest dimension of the prototype is 5 mm or λ/80 at the operating frequency of 750 MHz.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835534&req=5

f6: RF CMOS IC implementation of the circulator.(a) A simplified circuit diagram of the circulator is shown. Electronic commutation across a bank of N=8 capacitors is performed using reciprocal, passive transistor-based switches without direct-current bias. The staggered commutated network enables miniaturization of the unmodulated 3λ/4 ring using three C-L-C sections. (b) The microphotograph of the fabricated IC is shown along with a close-up photograph of the fabricated printed circuit board with the IC housed in a quad-flat no-leads (QFN) package and interfaced with the off-chip inductors. The largest dimension of the prototype is 5 mm or λ/80 at the operating frequency of 750 MHz.
Mentions: We constructed a prototype at RF using conventional 65 nm CMOS IC technology to implement the electronic commutation across a bank of N=8 capacitors, and three lumped C-L-C networks to miniaturize the 3λ/4 transmission line ring (Fig. 6). Miniaturization is eased by the fact that the 3λ/4 ring is unmodulated, resulting in an overall structure that has a maximum dimension of ≈λ/80 at the operating frequency of 750 MHz. The capacitors of the C-L-C networks are also incorporated in the IC, leaving the three inductors as the only off-chip components. The commutated capacitors are chosen to be 26 pF each, roughly six times (Z0=50 Ω), and are each realized on chip as a pair of 80 μm × 80 μm metal–insulator–metal capacitors. The total size of the staggered commutated network is ∼320 μm × 320 μm (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250). The control signals for the staggered commutation are generated using on-chip clock generation circuitry that is described in additional detail in the Methods section.

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus