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Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Circulator architecture.(a) A 3-port circulator may be realized by adding ports at three points along the ring as long as the circumferential spacing between the ports is λ/4. The S-parameters of such a structure match that of an ideal three-port circulator and are independent of l, the circumferential distance between port 3 and the staggered commutated network. (b) However, setting l to 0 suppresses the voltages across the commutated network for excitations at port 1, significantly enhancing the linearity of the structure to port 1 excitations.
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f5: Circulator architecture.(a) A 3-port circulator may be realized by adding ports at three points along the ring as long as the circumferential spacing between the ports is λ/4. The S-parameters of such a structure match that of an ideal three-port circulator and are independent of l, the circumferential distance between port 3 and the staggered commutated network. (b) However, setting l to 0 suppresses the voltages across the commutated network for excitations at port 1, significantly enhancing the linearity of the structure to port 1 excitations.

Mentions: A three-port circulator matched at all ports to a reference impedance of Z0 may be realized by contacting the 3λ/4 transmission line (also of characteristic impedance Z0) at three points as long as the three ports are spaced λ/4 apart along the ring circumference, as shown in Fig. 5a. To analyse this structure, we consider the case of a voltage excitation Vin at port 1. Using conventional microwave circuit analysis techniques along with the S-parameters of the staggered commutated network in equation (1) for the case of N→∞, the various node voltages can be determined to be


Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

Circulator architecture.(a) A 3-port circulator may be realized by adding ports at three points along the ring as long as the circumferential spacing between the ports is λ/4. The S-parameters of such a structure match that of an ideal three-port circulator and are independent of l, the circumferential distance between port 3 and the staggered commutated network. (b) However, setting l to 0 suppresses the voltages across the commutated network for excitations at port 1, significantly enhancing the linearity of the structure to port 1 excitations.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835534&req=5

f5: Circulator architecture.(a) A 3-port circulator may be realized by adding ports at three points along the ring as long as the circumferential spacing between the ports is λ/4. The S-parameters of such a structure match that of an ideal three-port circulator and are independent of l, the circumferential distance between port 3 and the staggered commutated network. (b) However, setting l to 0 suppresses the voltages across the commutated network for excitations at port 1, significantly enhancing the linearity of the structure to port 1 excitations.
Mentions: A three-port circulator matched at all ports to a reference impedance of Z0 may be realized by contacting the 3λ/4 transmission line (also of characteristic impedance Z0) at three points as long as the three ports are spaced λ/4 apart along the ring circumference, as shown in Fig. 5a. To analyse this structure, we consider the case of a voltage excitation Vin at port 1. Using conventional microwave circuit analysis techniques along with the S-parameters of the staggered commutated network in equation (1) for the case of N→∞, the various node voltages can be determined to be

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus