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Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Embedding the staggered commutated network within a 3λ/4 transmission-line ring results in unidirectional wave propagation.(a) When the commutated network with +90° staggering is embedded in a 3λ/4 ring, then in one direction, the −270° phase delay of the ring adds to the −90° phase shift through the commutated network, enabling wave propagation. (b) In the other direction, the −270° phase delay adds with the +90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network, prohibiting wave propagation.
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f2: Embedding the staggered commutated network within a 3λ/4 transmission-line ring results in unidirectional wave propagation.(a) When the commutated network with +90° staggering is embedded in a 3λ/4 ring, then in one direction, the −270° phase delay of the ring adds to the −90° phase shift through the commutated network, enabling wave propagation. (b) In the other direction, the −270° phase delay adds with the +90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network, prohibiting wave propagation.

Mentions: When the first and second set of switches are staggered by +90°, forward and reverse travelling waves at or near the commutation frequency experience phase shifts of +90° and −90°, respectively. When a transmission line or waveguide of length 3λ/4 is wrapped around the staggered commutated network, non-reciprocal wave propagation is achieved as waves may propagate in only one direction (Fig. 2a,b). In that direction, the −270° phase delay through the 3λ/4 ring adds with −90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network to satisfy the boundary condition, enabling wave propagation. In the other direction, the −270° phase delay adds with the +90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network to prohibit wave propagation.


Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

Embedding the staggered commutated network within a 3λ/4 transmission-line ring results in unidirectional wave propagation.(a) When the commutated network with +90° staggering is embedded in a 3λ/4 ring, then in one direction, the −270° phase delay of the ring adds to the −90° phase shift through the commutated network, enabling wave propagation. (b) In the other direction, the −270° phase delay adds with the +90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network, prohibiting wave propagation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835534&req=5

f2: Embedding the staggered commutated network within a 3λ/4 transmission-line ring results in unidirectional wave propagation.(a) When the commutated network with +90° staggering is embedded in a 3λ/4 ring, then in one direction, the −270° phase delay of the ring adds to the −90° phase shift through the commutated network, enabling wave propagation. (b) In the other direction, the −270° phase delay adds with the +90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network, prohibiting wave propagation.
Mentions: When the first and second set of switches are staggered by +90°, forward and reverse travelling waves at or near the commutation frequency experience phase shifts of +90° and −90°, respectively. When a transmission line or waveguide of length 3λ/4 is wrapped around the staggered commutated network, non-reciprocal wave propagation is achieved as waves may propagate in only one direction (Fig. 2a,b). In that direction, the −270° phase delay through the 3λ/4 ring adds with −90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network to satisfy the boundary condition, enabling wave propagation. In the other direction, the −270° phase delay adds with the +90° phase shift of the staggered commutated network to prohibit wave propagation.

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus