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Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison between non-reciprocity induced by the magneto-optic Faraday effect and staggered commutation.(a) A wave propagating in a Faraday-active magneto-optic material experiences no Faraday rotation in the absence of magnetic bias. (b) In the presence of magnetic bias in the positive z direction, a wave travelling in the positive z direction experiences Faraday rotation due to the difference in the propagation velocities of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized waves, whereas (c) a wave travelling in the negative z direction experiences an opposite rotation. (d) A wave propagating through a commutated network with no staggering experiences no phase shift. (e) Staggered commutation acts as a bias that breaks time reversibility, producing a phase shift for waves travelling from left to right and (f) an opposite phase shift for waves travelling from right to left.
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f1: Comparison between non-reciprocity induced by the magneto-optic Faraday effect and staggered commutation.(a) A wave propagating in a Faraday-active magneto-optic material experiences no Faraday rotation in the absence of magnetic bias. (b) In the presence of magnetic bias in the positive z direction, a wave travelling in the positive z direction experiences Faraday rotation due to the difference in the propagation velocities of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized waves, whereas (c) a wave travelling in the negative z direction experiences an opposite rotation. (d) A wave propagating through a commutated network with no staggering experiences no phase shift. (e) Staggered commutation acts as a bias that breaks time reversibility, producing a phase shift for waves travelling from left to right and (f) an opposite phase shift for waves travelling from right to left.

Mentions: Non-reciprocal components today are almost exclusively realized through the magneto-optic Faraday effect (Fig. 1a–c)—the application of a magnetic field bias parallel to the direction of propagation rotates the polarization vector of light due to the different propagation velocities of left- and right-circularly polarized waves5. Despite significant research efforts in the optical67 and RF domains8910, non-reciprocal components based on magneto-optic materials remain incompatible with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) fabrication processes due to material incompatibilities and the need for a magnetic field bias, significantly restricting their impact.


Magnetic-free non-reciprocity based on staggered commutation.

Reiskarimian N, Krishnaswamy H - Nat Commun (2016)

Comparison between non-reciprocity induced by the magneto-optic Faraday effect and staggered commutation.(a) A wave propagating in a Faraday-active magneto-optic material experiences no Faraday rotation in the absence of magnetic bias. (b) In the presence of magnetic bias in the positive z direction, a wave travelling in the positive z direction experiences Faraday rotation due to the difference in the propagation velocities of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized waves, whereas (c) a wave travelling in the negative z direction experiences an opposite rotation. (d) A wave propagating through a commutated network with no staggering experiences no phase shift. (e) Staggered commutation acts as a bias that breaks time reversibility, producing a phase shift for waves travelling from left to right and (f) an opposite phase shift for waves travelling from right to left.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835534&req=5

f1: Comparison between non-reciprocity induced by the magneto-optic Faraday effect and staggered commutation.(a) A wave propagating in a Faraday-active magneto-optic material experiences no Faraday rotation in the absence of magnetic bias. (b) In the presence of magnetic bias in the positive z direction, a wave travelling in the positive z direction experiences Faraday rotation due to the difference in the propagation velocities of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized waves, whereas (c) a wave travelling in the negative z direction experiences an opposite rotation. (d) A wave propagating through a commutated network with no staggering experiences no phase shift. (e) Staggered commutation acts as a bias that breaks time reversibility, producing a phase shift for waves travelling from left to right and (f) an opposite phase shift for waves travelling from right to left.
Mentions: Non-reciprocal components today are almost exclusively realized through the magneto-optic Faraday effect (Fig. 1a–c)—the application of a magnetic field bias parallel to the direction of propagation rotates the polarization vector of light due to the different propagation velocities of left- and right-circularly polarized waves5. Despite significant research efforts in the optical67 and RF domains8910, non-reciprocal components based on magneto-optic materials remain incompatible with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) fabrication processes due to material incompatibilities and the need for a magnetic field bias, significantly restricting their impact.

Bottom Line: However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit.Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio.We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, 1300 South West Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027, USA.

ABSTRACT
Lorentz reciprocity is a fundamental characteristic of the vast majority of electronic and photonic structures. However, non-reciprocal components such as isolators, circulators and gyrators enable new applications ranging from radio frequencies to optical frequencies, including full-duplex wireless communication and on-chip all-optical information processing. Such components today dominantly rely on the phenomenon of Faraday rotation in magneto-optic materials. However, they are typically bulky, expensive and not suitable for insertion in a conventional integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate magnetic-free linear passive non-reciprocity based on the concept of staggered commutation. Commutation is a form of parametric modulation with very high modulation ratio. We observe that staggered commutation enables time-reversal symmetry breaking within very small dimensions (λ/1,250 × λ/1,250 in our device), resulting in a miniature radio-frequency circulator that exhibits reduced implementation complexity, very low loss, strong non-reciprocity, significantly enhanced linearity and real-time reconfigurability, and is integrated in a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit for the first time.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus