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Olfactory learning skews mushroom body output pathways to steer behavioral choice in Drosophila.

Owald D, Waddell S - Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2015)

Bottom Line: How this information is coded in neural networks in the brain, and appropriately retrieved and utilized to guide behavior, is poorly understood.In the fruit fly olfactory memories of particular value are represented within sparse populations of odor-activated Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body ensemble.Reactivation of this skewed KC-output neuron network retrieves memory of odor valence and guides appropriate approach or avoidance behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, The University of Oxford, Tinsley Building, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematics of reinforcing dopaminergic neurons that innervate the MB. (a) The MB-MP1 [PPL1-γ1pedc] and MB-MV1 [PPL1-γ2α′1] DANs in the protocerebral posterior lateral (PPL) 1 cluster provide negative reinforcement signals. The MB-MV1 neuron projects to the lower stalk and junction region and the MB-MP1 neuron innervates the heel and distal peduncle. In addition, the aversive MB-M3 (PAM-β2β′2a) neuron from the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster ramifies on the tip of the β lobe. All neurons shown have an identical paired neuron that primarily innervates the contralateral MB lobes. (b) DANs in the PAM cluster mostly provide positive reinforcement signals. PAM DANs representing sugar sweetness (green with yellow outline), nutritious value of sugar (darker green) and water (blue) project to discrete zones of the horizontal β, β′ and γ MB lobes (marked with dotted outlines for γ); sweet taste to β′2am and γ4, sugar nutrient to γ5b (tip) and α1 (and possibly β1 β2, not illustrated), and water to a subregion of γ4 that appears distinct from the sweet-taste DANs. In addition, naïve evaluation of water vapor in thirsty flies requires a DAN that innervates β′2p. Reward type is therefore differentially represented in the DAN population and along the MB lobes. Several of the PAM DANs also have a projection to the contralateral MB. A single γ KC is shown with inset illustrating a model where adjoining segments of the KC arbor contain KC presynaptic terminals that are reinforced by DANs for water, sweet taste, or sugar nutrient value. These presynapses are assumed to wire to MBONs with a very similar zonally restricted anatomy to that of the DANs. Cell body position is not stereotyped and diagrams are not intended to be anatomically accurate. These illustrations are edited from [25].
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fig0005: Schematics of reinforcing dopaminergic neurons that innervate the MB. (a) The MB-MP1 [PPL1-γ1pedc] and MB-MV1 [PPL1-γ2α′1] DANs in the protocerebral posterior lateral (PPL) 1 cluster provide negative reinforcement signals. The MB-MV1 neuron projects to the lower stalk and junction region and the MB-MP1 neuron innervates the heel and distal peduncle. In addition, the aversive MB-M3 (PAM-β2β′2a) neuron from the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster ramifies on the tip of the β lobe. All neurons shown have an identical paired neuron that primarily innervates the contralateral MB lobes. (b) DANs in the PAM cluster mostly provide positive reinforcement signals. PAM DANs representing sugar sweetness (green with yellow outline), nutritious value of sugar (darker green) and water (blue) project to discrete zones of the horizontal β, β′ and γ MB lobes (marked with dotted outlines for γ); sweet taste to β′2am and γ4, sugar nutrient to γ5b (tip) and α1 (and possibly β1 β2, not illustrated), and water to a subregion of γ4 that appears distinct from the sweet-taste DANs. In addition, naïve evaluation of water vapor in thirsty flies requires a DAN that innervates β′2p. Reward type is therefore differentially represented in the DAN population and along the MB lobes. Several of the PAM DANs also have a projection to the contralateral MB. A single γ KC is shown with inset illustrating a model where adjoining segments of the KC arbor contain KC presynaptic terminals that are reinforced by DANs for water, sweet taste, or sugar nutrient value. These presynapses are assumed to wire to MBONs with a very similar zonally restricted anatomy to that of the DANs. Cell body position is not stereotyped and diagrams are not intended to be anatomically accurate. These illustrations are edited from [25].

Mentions: Different fly dopaminergic neurons (DANs) provide positive and negative value signals [25]. Most of the DANs that innervate the MB reside in two discrete clusters called PPL1 and PAM (Figure 1). Each PPL1 neuron that innervates the MB projects presynaptic terminals to a unique zone on the vertical α or α′ lobes, or heel and surface of the peduncle. Several of them can convey negative reinforcement value during learning (Figure 1a) [26, 27, 28].


Olfactory learning skews mushroom body output pathways to steer behavioral choice in Drosophila.

Owald D, Waddell S - Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2015)

Schematics of reinforcing dopaminergic neurons that innervate the MB. (a) The MB-MP1 [PPL1-γ1pedc] and MB-MV1 [PPL1-γ2α′1] DANs in the protocerebral posterior lateral (PPL) 1 cluster provide negative reinforcement signals. The MB-MV1 neuron projects to the lower stalk and junction region and the MB-MP1 neuron innervates the heel and distal peduncle. In addition, the aversive MB-M3 (PAM-β2β′2a) neuron from the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster ramifies on the tip of the β lobe. All neurons shown have an identical paired neuron that primarily innervates the contralateral MB lobes. (b) DANs in the PAM cluster mostly provide positive reinforcement signals. PAM DANs representing sugar sweetness (green with yellow outline), nutritious value of sugar (darker green) and water (blue) project to discrete zones of the horizontal β, β′ and γ MB lobes (marked with dotted outlines for γ); sweet taste to β′2am and γ4, sugar nutrient to γ5b (tip) and α1 (and possibly β1 β2, not illustrated), and water to a subregion of γ4 that appears distinct from the sweet-taste DANs. In addition, naïve evaluation of water vapor in thirsty flies requires a DAN that innervates β′2p. Reward type is therefore differentially represented in the DAN population and along the MB lobes. Several of the PAM DANs also have a projection to the contralateral MB. A single γ KC is shown with inset illustrating a model where adjoining segments of the KC arbor contain KC presynaptic terminals that are reinforced by DANs for water, sweet taste, or sugar nutrient value. These presynapses are assumed to wire to MBONs with a very similar zonally restricted anatomy to that of the DANs. Cell body position is not stereotyped and diagrams are not intended to be anatomically accurate. These illustrations are edited from [25].
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835525&req=5

fig0005: Schematics of reinforcing dopaminergic neurons that innervate the MB. (a) The MB-MP1 [PPL1-γ1pedc] and MB-MV1 [PPL1-γ2α′1] DANs in the protocerebral posterior lateral (PPL) 1 cluster provide negative reinforcement signals. The MB-MV1 neuron projects to the lower stalk and junction region and the MB-MP1 neuron innervates the heel and distal peduncle. In addition, the aversive MB-M3 (PAM-β2β′2a) neuron from the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster ramifies on the tip of the β lobe. All neurons shown have an identical paired neuron that primarily innervates the contralateral MB lobes. (b) DANs in the PAM cluster mostly provide positive reinforcement signals. PAM DANs representing sugar sweetness (green with yellow outline), nutritious value of sugar (darker green) and water (blue) project to discrete zones of the horizontal β, β′ and γ MB lobes (marked with dotted outlines for γ); sweet taste to β′2am and γ4, sugar nutrient to γ5b (tip) and α1 (and possibly β1 β2, not illustrated), and water to a subregion of γ4 that appears distinct from the sweet-taste DANs. In addition, naïve evaluation of water vapor in thirsty flies requires a DAN that innervates β′2p. Reward type is therefore differentially represented in the DAN population and along the MB lobes. Several of the PAM DANs also have a projection to the contralateral MB. A single γ KC is shown with inset illustrating a model where adjoining segments of the KC arbor contain KC presynaptic terminals that are reinforced by DANs for water, sweet taste, or sugar nutrient value. These presynapses are assumed to wire to MBONs with a very similar zonally restricted anatomy to that of the DANs. Cell body position is not stereotyped and diagrams are not intended to be anatomically accurate. These illustrations are edited from [25].
Mentions: Different fly dopaminergic neurons (DANs) provide positive and negative value signals [25]. Most of the DANs that innervate the MB reside in two discrete clusters called PPL1 and PAM (Figure 1). Each PPL1 neuron that innervates the MB projects presynaptic terminals to a unique zone on the vertical α or α′ lobes, or heel and surface of the peduncle. Several of them can convey negative reinforcement value during learning (Figure 1a) [26, 27, 28].

Bottom Line: How this information is coded in neural networks in the brain, and appropriately retrieved and utilized to guide behavior, is poorly understood.In the fruit fly olfactory memories of particular value are represented within sparse populations of odor-activated Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body ensemble.Reactivation of this skewed KC-output neuron network retrieves memory of odor valence and guides appropriate approach or avoidance behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, The University of Oxford, Tinsley Building, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus