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Metabolic Profile and Root Development of Hypericum perforatum L. In vitro Roots under Stress Conditions Due to Chitosan Treatment and Culture Time.

Brasili E, Miccheli A, Marini F, Praticò G, Sciubba F, Di Cocco ME, Cechinel VF, Tocci N, Valletta A, Pasqua G - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: In response to the increase of biomass density over time, a decrease in the synthesis of isoleucine, valine, pyruvate, methylamine, etanolamine, trigonelline, glutamine and fatty acids, and an increase in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, such as xanthones, epicatechin, gallic, and shikimic acid were observed.Chitosan treatment associated to a slowdown of root biomass growth caused an increase in DMAPP and a decrease in stigmasterol, shikimic acid, and tryptophan levels.Most of the metabolic variations as well as the morpho-anatomical alterations occurred within 72 h from the elicitation, suggesting an early response of H. perforatum roots to chitosan elicitation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Biology, "Sapienza" University of Rome Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The responses of Hypericum perforatum root cultures to chitosan elicitation had been investigated through (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics associated with morpho-anatomical analyses. The root metabolome was influenced by two factors, i.e., time of culture (associated with biomass growth and related "overcrowding stress") and chitosan elicitation. ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) modeling showed that these factors act independently. In response to the increase of biomass density over time, a decrease in the synthesis of isoleucine, valine, pyruvate, methylamine, etanolamine, trigonelline, glutamine and fatty acids, and an increase in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, such as xanthones, epicatechin, gallic, and shikimic acid were observed. Among the xanthones, brasilixanthone B has been identified for the first time in chitosan-elicited root cultures of H. perforatum. Chitosan treatment associated to a slowdown of root biomass growth caused an increase in DMAPP and a decrease in stigmasterol, shikimic acid, and tryptophan levels. The histological analysis of chitosan-treated roots revealed a marked swelling of the root apex, mainly due to the hypertrophy of the first two sub-epidermal cell layers. In addition, periclinal divisions in hypertrophic cortical cells, resulting in an increase of cortical layers, were frequently observed. Most of the metabolic variations as well as the morpho-anatomical alterations occurred within 72 h from the elicitation, suggesting an early response of H. perforatum roots to chitosan elicitation. The obtained results improve the knowledge of the root responses to biotic stress and provide useful information to optimize the biotechnological production of plant compounds of industrial interest.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Morphology of H. perforatum in vitro roots. Stereomicroscopic view of control (A) and chitosan-treated (B) roots at 72 h. A swelling in the region of distension and differentiation could be observed in chitosan-treated roots. Bars represent 250 μm.
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Figure 2: Morphology of H. perforatum in vitro roots. Stereomicroscopic view of control (A) and chitosan-treated (B) roots at 72 h. A swelling in the region of distension and differentiation could be observed in chitosan-treated roots. Bars represent 250 μm.

Mentions: Chitosan elicitation strongly affected the root morphology and anatomy. Chitosan-treated roots at 72, 96, and 192 h showed morpho-anatomical alterations with respect to the untreated roots. Morphological analysis after 72 h from chitosan treatment showed a remarkable swelling and browning in the region of distension and differentiation of the root (Figure 2), that remained unchanged up to 96 and 192 h.


Metabolic Profile and Root Development of Hypericum perforatum L. In vitro Roots under Stress Conditions Due to Chitosan Treatment and Culture Time.

Brasili E, Miccheli A, Marini F, Praticò G, Sciubba F, Di Cocco ME, Cechinel VF, Tocci N, Valletta A, Pasqua G - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Morphology of H. perforatum in vitro roots. Stereomicroscopic view of control (A) and chitosan-treated (B) roots at 72 h. A swelling in the region of distension and differentiation could be observed in chitosan-treated roots. Bars represent 250 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835506&req=5

Figure 2: Morphology of H. perforatum in vitro roots. Stereomicroscopic view of control (A) and chitosan-treated (B) roots at 72 h. A swelling in the region of distension and differentiation could be observed in chitosan-treated roots. Bars represent 250 μm.
Mentions: Chitosan elicitation strongly affected the root morphology and anatomy. Chitosan-treated roots at 72, 96, and 192 h showed morpho-anatomical alterations with respect to the untreated roots. Morphological analysis after 72 h from chitosan treatment showed a remarkable swelling and browning in the region of distension and differentiation of the root (Figure 2), that remained unchanged up to 96 and 192 h.

Bottom Line: In response to the increase of biomass density over time, a decrease in the synthesis of isoleucine, valine, pyruvate, methylamine, etanolamine, trigonelline, glutamine and fatty acids, and an increase in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, such as xanthones, epicatechin, gallic, and shikimic acid were observed.Chitosan treatment associated to a slowdown of root biomass growth caused an increase in DMAPP and a decrease in stigmasterol, shikimic acid, and tryptophan levels.Most of the metabolic variations as well as the morpho-anatomical alterations occurred within 72 h from the elicitation, suggesting an early response of H. perforatum roots to chitosan elicitation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Biology, "Sapienza" University of Rome Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The responses of Hypericum perforatum root cultures to chitosan elicitation had been investigated through (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics associated with morpho-anatomical analyses. The root metabolome was influenced by two factors, i.e., time of culture (associated with biomass growth and related "overcrowding stress") and chitosan elicitation. ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) modeling showed that these factors act independently. In response to the increase of biomass density over time, a decrease in the synthesis of isoleucine, valine, pyruvate, methylamine, etanolamine, trigonelline, glutamine and fatty acids, and an increase in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, such as xanthones, epicatechin, gallic, and shikimic acid were observed. Among the xanthones, brasilixanthone B has been identified for the first time in chitosan-elicited root cultures of H. perforatum. Chitosan treatment associated to a slowdown of root biomass growth caused an increase in DMAPP and a decrease in stigmasterol, shikimic acid, and tryptophan levels. The histological analysis of chitosan-treated roots revealed a marked swelling of the root apex, mainly due to the hypertrophy of the first two sub-epidermal cell layers. In addition, periclinal divisions in hypertrophic cortical cells, resulting in an increase of cortical layers, were frequently observed. Most of the metabolic variations as well as the morpho-anatomical alterations occurred within 72 h from the elicitation, suggesting an early response of H. perforatum roots to chitosan elicitation. The obtained results improve the knowledge of the root responses to biotic stress and provide useful information to optimize the biotechnological production of plant compounds of industrial interest.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus