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Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response.

Lamacchia M, Dyrka W, Breton A, Saupe SJ, Paoletti M - Front Microbiol (2016)

Bottom Line: Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI.Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death.These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Biologie et Génétique Cellulaire, UMR 5095, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Université de Bordeaux Bordeaux, France.

ABSTRACT
Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death. These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

GO terms and Pfam-A protein domains differentially expressed in all three non self conditions. Only GO terms (left) and Pfam-A protein domains (right) found at least five times in one of the conditions in the up and down regulated gene sets are reported.
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Figure 5: GO terms and Pfam-A protein domains differentially expressed in all three non self conditions. Only GO terms (left) and Pfam-A protein domains (right) found at least five times in one of the conditions in the up and down regulated gene sets are reported.

Mentions: We first analyzed the 579 and 995 genes up or down regulated in all three conditions (Figure 5). As observed above, GO terms and Pfam-A annotations of genes up regulated in common are significantly less extensive than annotation of genes down regulated (Fisher test, p < 1e-4 in both cases). The most represented GO terms and Pfam-A domains associated with these gene sets, representing the common basis for response to non self, are presented Figure 5. Down regulated GO terms or Pfam-A annotations are essentially related to growth, development and protein synthesis. Up regulated GO terms or Pfam-A annotations are related to metabolic and catabolic process, secondary metabolism and autophagy (see below). The common basis of response to non self includes a growth arrest accompanied with reduction in protein synthesis, and induction of autophagy, a process associated with response to stress (Kroemer et al., 2010), and immune responses (Zhou et al., 2014; Shibutani et al., 2015).


Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response.

Lamacchia M, Dyrka W, Breton A, Saupe SJ, Paoletti M - Front Microbiol (2016)

GO terms and Pfam-A protein domains differentially expressed in all three non self conditions. Only GO terms (left) and Pfam-A protein domains (right) found at least five times in one of the conditions in the up and down regulated gene sets are reported.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835503&req=5

Figure 5: GO terms and Pfam-A protein domains differentially expressed in all three non self conditions. Only GO terms (left) and Pfam-A protein domains (right) found at least five times in one of the conditions in the up and down regulated gene sets are reported.
Mentions: We first analyzed the 579 and 995 genes up or down regulated in all three conditions (Figure 5). As observed above, GO terms and Pfam-A annotations of genes up regulated in common are significantly less extensive than annotation of genes down regulated (Fisher test, p < 1e-4 in both cases). The most represented GO terms and Pfam-A domains associated with these gene sets, representing the common basis for response to non self, are presented Figure 5. Down regulated GO terms or Pfam-A annotations are essentially related to growth, development and protein synthesis. Up regulated GO terms or Pfam-A annotations are related to metabolic and catabolic process, secondary metabolism and autophagy (see below). The common basis of response to non self includes a growth arrest accompanied with reduction in protein synthesis, and induction of autophagy, a process associated with response to stress (Kroemer et al., 2010), and immune responses (Zhou et al., 2014; Shibutani et al., 2015).

Bottom Line: Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI.Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death.These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Biologie et Génétique Cellulaire, UMR 5095, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Université de Bordeaux Bordeaux, France.

ABSTRACT
Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death. These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus