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Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response.

Lamacchia M, Dyrka W, Breton A, Saupe SJ, Paoletti M - Front Microbiol (2016)

Bottom Line: Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI.Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death.These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Biologie et Génétique Cellulaire, UMR 5095, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Université de Bordeaux Bordeaux, France.

ABSTRACT
Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death. These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Overlap between transcriptional response to bacteria and vegetative incompatibility. (A) Area proportional Venn diagram showing P. anserina genes up or down regulated after transfer to S. fonticola or S. marcescens seeded plates, and during the vegetative incompatibility reaction. Number in brackets represent the total number for each gene set with a FC > 2 and p < 0.01, values within the graph represent number of genes for each intersect. (B) Histogram representing the percentage of genes up or down regulated by the presence of S. fonticola or S. marcescens that are also up or down regulated during the VI reaction for different fold change values. In all cases the overlap between response to bacteria and VI response is greater than expected by chance (**p < 0.001, *p < 0.01).
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Figure 3: Overlap between transcriptional response to bacteria and vegetative incompatibility. (A) Area proportional Venn diagram showing P. anserina genes up or down regulated after transfer to S. fonticola or S. marcescens seeded plates, and during the vegetative incompatibility reaction. Number in brackets represent the total number for each gene set with a FC > 2 and p < 0.01, values within the graph represent number of genes for each intersect. (B) Histogram representing the percentage of genes up or down regulated by the presence of S. fonticola or S. marcescens that are also up or down regulated during the VI reaction for different fold change values. In all cases the overlap between response to bacteria and VI response is greater than expected by chance (**p < 0.001, *p < 0.01).

Mentions: We next observed that transcriptional response to bacteria also significantly overlap with the VI reaction (Chi2, p = 0; Figure 3). The overlap is significantly more important for genes down regulated than for genes up regulated (Chi2, p = 0). As the fold change increases, the overlaps between responses to bacteria and VI decrease. Only six and 15 genes are common to the 100 most up or down regulated genes in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses to VI and to bacteria thus share a common signature for genes with a low level of regulation while genes the most regulated in response to bacteria are different from the genes most regulated during VI.


Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response.

Lamacchia M, Dyrka W, Breton A, Saupe SJ, Paoletti M - Front Microbiol (2016)

Overlap between transcriptional response to bacteria and vegetative incompatibility. (A) Area proportional Venn diagram showing P. anserina genes up or down regulated after transfer to S. fonticola or S. marcescens seeded plates, and during the vegetative incompatibility reaction. Number in brackets represent the total number for each gene set with a FC > 2 and p < 0.01, values within the graph represent number of genes for each intersect. (B) Histogram representing the percentage of genes up or down regulated by the presence of S. fonticola or S. marcescens that are also up or down regulated during the VI reaction for different fold change values. In all cases the overlap between response to bacteria and VI response is greater than expected by chance (**p < 0.001, *p < 0.01).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835503&req=5

Figure 3: Overlap between transcriptional response to bacteria and vegetative incompatibility. (A) Area proportional Venn diagram showing P. anserina genes up or down regulated after transfer to S. fonticola or S. marcescens seeded plates, and during the vegetative incompatibility reaction. Number in brackets represent the total number for each gene set with a FC > 2 and p < 0.01, values within the graph represent number of genes for each intersect. (B) Histogram representing the percentage of genes up or down regulated by the presence of S. fonticola or S. marcescens that are also up or down regulated during the VI reaction for different fold change values. In all cases the overlap between response to bacteria and VI response is greater than expected by chance (**p < 0.001, *p < 0.01).
Mentions: We next observed that transcriptional response to bacteria also significantly overlap with the VI reaction (Chi2, p = 0; Figure 3). The overlap is significantly more important for genes down regulated than for genes up regulated (Chi2, p = 0). As the fold change increases, the overlaps between responses to bacteria and VI decrease. Only six and 15 genes are common to the 100 most up or down regulated genes in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses to VI and to bacteria thus share a common signature for genes with a low level of regulation while genes the most regulated in response to bacteria are different from the genes most regulated during VI.

Bottom Line: Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI.Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death.These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Biologie et Génétique Cellulaire, UMR 5095, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Université de Bordeaux Bordeaux, France.

ABSTRACT
Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most functions up regulated during VI would lead to cell death. These differences are discussed in the frame of a multilayered response to non self in fungi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus