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The Chemical and Genetic Characteristics of Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) Cultivars and Their Suitable Habitat.

Xiang L, Liu Y, Xie C, Li X, Yu Y, Ye M, Chen S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects.However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum.Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a more non-volatile ether extraction. The average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. armatum were 11.84 and 11.63%, respectively, and the average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. bungeanum were 6.46 and 14.23%, respectively. Combined with an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence characters and chemical PCA results, six cultivars were classified into their own groups, for the two species in particular. The temperature in January and July were the most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil. However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum. Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains. The predicted suitable habitat could be used as a preliminary test area for Szechuan pepper cultivar production.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regression coefficient of ecological factors (A,C,E,G) and VIP (B,D,F,H) of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents in Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum (the whiskers represent standard deviation). x1 Elevation, x2 Active accumulated temperature, x3 Sunshine duration, x4 Average annual temperature, x5 Minimum temperature in January, x6 Average temperature in January, x7 Maximum temperature in July, x8 Average temperature in July, x9 Annual precipitation, x10 Relative humidity. VIP scores larger than 1 indicated the most significant ecological factors, and the scores between 1 and 0.5 indicated the significant ecological factors, and the scores lower than 0.5 indicated the unimportant ecological factors.
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Figure 4: Regression coefficient of ecological factors (A,C,E,G) and VIP (B,D,F,H) of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents in Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum (the whiskers represent standard deviation). x1 Elevation, x2 Active accumulated temperature, x3 Sunshine duration, x4 Average annual temperature, x5 Minimum temperature in January, x6 Average temperature in January, x7 Maximum temperature in July, x8 Average temperature in July, x9 Annual precipitation, x10 Relative humidity. VIP scores larger than 1 indicated the most significant ecological factors, and the scores between 1 and 0.5 indicated the significant ecological factors, and the scores lower than 0.5 indicated the unimportant ecological factors.

Mentions: According to the PLSR analysis, all of the ecological factors were positively correlated with the volatile oil contents of Z. armatum, except for the elevation and sunshine duration and the annual precipitation (Figure 4A). VIP scores of the minimum temperature in January (1.32), average temperature in July (1.29), maximum temperature in July (1.27), average temperature in January (1.24) were larger than 1 indicated most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil (Figure 4B). Only the relative humidity exhibited a negative correlation with the non-volatile ether extract contents of Z. armatum (Figure 4E), but the mean annual temperature (1.80), average temperature in January (1.56), and minimum temperature in January (1.17) were most significant ecological factors and the active accumulated temperature (0.43) is an unimportant ecological factor (Figure 4F).


The Chemical and Genetic Characteristics of Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) Cultivars and Their Suitable Habitat.

Xiang L, Liu Y, Xie C, Li X, Yu Y, Ye M, Chen S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Regression coefficient of ecological factors (A,C,E,G) and VIP (B,D,F,H) of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents in Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum (the whiskers represent standard deviation). x1 Elevation, x2 Active accumulated temperature, x3 Sunshine duration, x4 Average annual temperature, x5 Minimum temperature in January, x6 Average temperature in January, x7 Maximum temperature in July, x8 Average temperature in July, x9 Annual precipitation, x10 Relative humidity. VIP scores larger than 1 indicated the most significant ecological factors, and the scores between 1 and 0.5 indicated the significant ecological factors, and the scores lower than 0.5 indicated the unimportant ecological factors.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835500&req=5

Figure 4: Regression coefficient of ecological factors (A,C,E,G) and VIP (B,D,F,H) of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents in Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum (the whiskers represent standard deviation). x1 Elevation, x2 Active accumulated temperature, x3 Sunshine duration, x4 Average annual temperature, x5 Minimum temperature in January, x6 Average temperature in January, x7 Maximum temperature in July, x8 Average temperature in July, x9 Annual precipitation, x10 Relative humidity. VIP scores larger than 1 indicated the most significant ecological factors, and the scores between 1 and 0.5 indicated the significant ecological factors, and the scores lower than 0.5 indicated the unimportant ecological factors.
Mentions: According to the PLSR analysis, all of the ecological factors were positively correlated with the volatile oil contents of Z. armatum, except for the elevation and sunshine duration and the annual precipitation (Figure 4A). VIP scores of the minimum temperature in January (1.32), average temperature in July (1.29), maximum temperature in July (1.27), average temperature in January (1.24) were larger than 1 indicated most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil (Figure 4B). Only the relative humidity exhibited a negative correlation with the non-volatile ether extract contents of Z. armatum (Figure 4E), but the mean annual temperature (1.80), average temperature in January (1.56), and minimum temperature in January (1.17) were most significant ecological factors and the active accumulated temperature (0.43) is an unimportant ecological factor (Figure 4F).

Bottom Line: Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects.However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum.Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a more non-volatile ether extraction. The average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. armatum were 11.84 and 11.63%, respectively, and the average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. bungeanum were 6.46 and 14.23%, respectively. Combined with an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence characters and chemical PCA results, six cultivars were classified into their own groups, for the two species in particular. The temperature in January and July were the most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil. However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum. Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains. The predicted suitable habitat could be used as a preliminary test area for Szechuan pepper cultivar production.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus