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The Chemical and Genetic Characteristics of Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) Cultivars and Their Suitable Habitat.

Xiang L, Liu Y, Xie C, Li X, Yu Y, Ye M, Chen S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects.However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum.Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a more non-volatile ether extraction. The average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. armatum were 11.84 and 11.63%, respectively, and the average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. bungeanum were 6.46 and 14.23%, respectively. Combined with an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence characters and chemical PCA results, six cultivars were classified into their own groups, for the two species in particular. The temperature in January and July were the most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil. However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum. Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains. The predicted suitable habitat could be used as a preliminary test area for Szechuan pepper cultivar production.

No MeSH data available.


PCA analysis based on the contents of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of six Szechuan pepper cultivars. (A) PCA analysis for volatile oil content, (B) PCA analysis for non-volatile ether extract content, ZA1 Jiyang Qinghuajiao, ZA2 Tengjiao, ZB1 Yuexigong Jiao, ZB2 Linshan Zhenglujiao, ZB3 Da Hongpao, and ZB4 Hanyuan Huajiao.
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Figure 2: PCA analysis based on the contents of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of six Szechuan pepper cultivars. (A) PCA analysis for volatile oil content, (B) PCA analysis for non-volatile ether extract content, ZA1 Jiyang Qinghuajiao, ZA2 Tengjiao, ZB1 Yuexigong Jiao, ZB2 Linshan Zhenglujiao, ZB3 Da Hongpao, and ZB4 Hanyuan Huajiao.

Mentions: A further PCA analysis indicated that the Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum cultivars could be clearly distinguished from each other based on the volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents, respectively. Two Z. armatum cultivars (ZA1 and ZA2) were located in the upper area of the PCA 3D scatter plot for volatile oil, and most of the Z. bungeanum cultivars (ZB1, ZB2, ZB3, and ZB4) were distributed in the lower part. However, Z. bungeanum cultivars were distributed in the upper quadrants of the PCA 3D scatter plot for non-volatile ether extract and two Z. armatum cultivars were located in the lower region (Figures 2A,B). These results matched the results for the volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents.


The Chemical and Genetic Characteristics of Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) Cultivars and Their Suitable Habitat.

Xiang L, Liu Y, Xie C, Li X, Yu Y, Ye M, Chen S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

PCA analysis based on the contents of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of six Szechuan pepper cultivars. (A) PCA analysis for volatile oil content, (B) PCA analysis for non-volatile ether extract content, ZA1 Jiyang Qinghuajiao, ZA2 Tengjiao, ZB1 Yuexigong Jiao, ZB2 Linshan Zhenglujiao, ZB3 Da Hongpao, and ZB4 Hanyuan Huajiao.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835500&req=5

Figure 2: PCA analysis based on the contents of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of six Szechuan pepper cultivars. (A) PCA analysis for volatile oil content, (B) PCA analysis for non-volatile ether extract content, ZA1 Jiyang Qinghuajiao, ZA2 Tengjiao, ZB1 Yuexigong Jiao, ZB2 Linshan Zhenglujiao, ZB3 Da Hongpao, and ZB4 Hanyuan Huajiao.
Mentions: A further PCA analysis indicated that the Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum cultivars could be clearly distinguished from each other based on the volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents, respectively. Two Z. armatum cultivars (ZA1 and ZA2) were located in the upper area of the PCA 3D scatter plot for volatile oil, and most of the Z. bungeanum cultivars (ZB1, ZB2, ZB3, and ZB4) were distributed in the lower part. However, Z. bungeanum cultivars were distributed in the upper quadrants of the PCA 3D scatter plot for non-volatile ether extract and two Z. armatum cultivars were located in the lower region (Figures 2A,B). These results matched the results for the volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract contents.

Bottom Line: Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects.However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum.Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a more non-volatile ether extraction. The average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. armatum were 11.84 and 11.63%, respectively, and the average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. bungeanum were 6.46 and 14.23%, respectively. Combined with an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence characters and chemical PCA results, six cultivars were classified into their own groups, for the two species in particular. The temperature in January and July were the most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil. However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum. Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains. The predicted suitable habitat could be used as a preliminary test area for Szechuan pepper cultivar production.

No MeSH data available.