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The Chemical and Genetic Characteristics of Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) Cultivars and Their Suitable Habitat.

Xiang L, Liu Y, Xie C, Li X, Yu Y, Ye M, Chen S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Bottom Line: Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects.However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum.Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a more non-volatile ether extraction. The average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. armatum were 11.84 and 11.63%, respectively, and the average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. bungeanum were 6.46 and 14.23%, respectively. Combined with an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence characters and chemical PCA results, six cultivars were classified into their own groups, for the two species in particular. The temperature in January and July were the most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil. However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum. Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains. The predicted suitable habitat could be used as a preliminary test area for Szechuan pepper cultivar production.

No MeSH data available.


Six quality cultivars of Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum during the mature period. ZA1 and ZA2 belong to Z. armatum and the pericarps are bright green; ZB1-ZB4 belong to Z. bungeanum and the pericarps are bright red.
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Figure 1: Six quality cultivars of Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum during the mature period. ZA1 and ZA2 belong to Z. armatum and the pericarps are bright green; ZB1-ZB4 belong to Z. bungeanum and the pericarps are bright red.

Mentions: Chinese farmers have cultivated multiple cultivars of Szechuan peppers during the process, such as Yuexigong Jiao, Lingshan Zhenglujiao, Da Hongpao, and Hanyuan Huajiao, which belong to Zanthoxylum bungeanum. In recent years, Jinyangqing Huajiao and Tengjiao, which belong to Z. armatum, have also been cultivated. The pericarp color of Z. armatum cultivars is bright green and has a more unique aromatic smell; these cultivars are commonly known as “Qinghuajiao” (Figure 1). The pericarp color of Z. bungeanum cultivars are bright red, and they provide a more numbing sensation; these cultivars are commonly known as “Honghuajiao” (Figure 1; Yu et al., 2009). According to research, the cultivars of Szechuan peppers and their related plants are easily confused for their rich biodiversity and morphological similarity (Hou et al., 2014). However, the main chemical contents and suitable habitat are different between these cultivars. The incorrect selection of cultivars in agricultural production can cause economic loss.


The Chemical and Genetic Characteristics of Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) Cultivars and Their Suitable Habitat.

Xiang L, Liu Y, Xie C, Li X, Yu Y, Ye M, Chen S - Front Plant Sci (2016)

Six quality cultivars of Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum during the mature period. ZA1 and ZA2 belong to Z. armatum and the pericarps are bright green; ZB1-ZB4 belong to Z. bungeanum and the pericarps are bright red.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835500&req=5

Figure 1: Six quality cultivars of Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum during the mature period. ZA1 and ZA2 belong to Z. armatum and the pericarps are bright green; ZB1-ZB4 belong to Z. bungeanum and the pericarps are bright red.
Mentions: Chinese farmers have cultivated multiple cultivars of Szechuan peppers during the process, such as Yuexigong Jiao, Lingshan Zhenglujiao, Da Hongpao, and Hanyuan Huajiao, which belong to Zanthoxylum bungeanum. In recent years, Jinyangqing Huajiao and Tengjiao, which belong to Z. armatum, have also been cultivated. The pericarp color of Z. armatum cultivars is bright green and has a more unique aromatic smell; these cultivars are commonly known as “Qinghuajiao” (Figure 1). The pericarp color of Z. bungeanum cultivars are bright red, and they provide a more numbing sensation; these cultivars are commonly known as “Honghuajiao” (Figure 1; Yu et al., 2009). According to research, the cultivars of Szechuan peppers and their related plants are easily confused for their rich biodiversity and morphological similarity (Hou et al., 2014). However, the main chemical contents and suitable habitat are different between these cultivars. The incorrect selection of cultivars in agricultural production can cause economic loss.

Bottom Line: Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects.However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum.Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a more non-volatile ether extraction. The average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. armatum were 11.84 and 11.63%, respectively, and the average content of volatile oil and non-volatile ether extract of Z. bungeanum were 6.46 and 14.23%, respectively. Combined with an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence characters and chemical PCA results, six cultivars were classified into their own groups, for the two species in particular. The temperature in January and July were the most significant ecological factors influencing the contents of the Z. armatum volatile oil. However, annual precipitation, temperature in January and relevant humidity had a significant positive correlation with the content of non-volatile ether extract in Z. bungeanum. Thus, the most suitable areas for producing Z. bungeanum cultivars ranged from the Hengduan Mountains to the Ta-pa Mountains, and the regions suitable for Z. armatum cultivars were found to be in the Sichuan Basin and Dalou-Wu mountains. The predicted suitable habitat could be used as a preliminary test area for Szechuan pepper cultivar production.

No MeSH data available.