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Cognitive, Behavioral and Emotional Empathy in Pharmacy Students: Targeting Programs for Curriculum Modification.

Tamayo CA, Rizkalla MN, Henderson KK - Front Pharmacol (2016)

Bottom Line: The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20-140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. (2011) and Van Winkle et al. (2012b).Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents.For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove IL, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Empathy is an essential trait for pharmacists and is recognized as a core competency that can be developed in the classroom. There is a growing body of data regarding levels of empathy in pharmacy students; however, these studies have not measured differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional empathy. The goal of this study was to parse the underlying components of empathy and correlate them to psychosocial attributes, with the overall goal of identifying curriculum modifications to enhance levels of empathy in pharmacy students.

Methods: IRB approval was obtained to measure empathy levels in pharmacy students attending Midwestern University. An online, anonymous survey administered through a secure website (REDCap) was used. This survey utilized the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Medical Student version) and included questions regarding demographics and personality traits. Empathy questions were sub-divided into behavioral, cognitive, and emotional categories. Data are presented as mean ± SEM with significance set at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: Three hundred and four pharmacy students at Midwestern University participated in a fall survey with an overall response rate of 37%. The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20-140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. (2011) and Van Winkle et al. (2012b). Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents. For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, negative correlations to empathy were observed for self-serving behavior (R D 0.490, P < 0.001), medical authoritarianism (R D 0.428, P < 0.001), and experience of coercion (R D 0.344, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Overall, empathy levels in pharmacy students are similar to prior studies with females scoring higher than males. Emotional empathy may play a greater role than cognitive and behavioral empathy in this group of students. Targeted programs that promote volunteerism and activities that foster responsiveness to patient needs may attenuate self-serving behavior and medical authoritarianism and, therefore, improve empathy levels in pharmacy students.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Emotional empathy was greater than Cognitive (P = 0.005) and Behavioral empathy (P = 0.01) in Pharmacy students. Scores and population distributions are shown.
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Figure 2: Emotional empathy was greater than Cognitive (P = 0.005) and Behavioral empathy (P = 0.01) in Pharmacy students. Scores and population distributions are shown.

Mentions: Empathy questions were sub-divided into emotional, cognitive, and behavioral categories and answers were scored and ranked on a scale of 0–100%. To compare the effect of gender, year in pharmacy school, and empathy sub-components (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional), a 3-way ANOVA was used. As a graduate population, pharmacy students scored significantly higher in emotional empathy 78.1 ± 0.8% vs. cognitive empathy 73.9 ± 0.7% (P = 0.005) as well as behavioral empathy 73.8 ± 0.9% (P = 0.011). The distribution of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral empathy scores and student numbers are presented in Figure 2. There was not a significant interaction between individual subcomponents of empathy and class year (P = 0.441) or gender (P = 0.441). However, subcomponent scores were significantly lower in the 3rd year class (P < 0.05); Table 1. Similar to the Jefferson empathy scores, females scored significantly higher than males in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th class years (P < 0.05); and 3rd year females scores were lower than 1st, 2nd, and 4th year female scores (P < 0.05); Table 1. Additionally, female 4th year empathy scores were greater than 1st year female scores (P = 0.02; Table 1). In male students, empathy scores were greater in 1st year vs. 3rd year (P = 0.024; Table 1).


Cognitive, Behavioral and Emotional Empathy in Pharmacy Students: Targeting Programs for Curriculum Modification.

Tamayo CA, Rizkalla MN, Henderson KK - Front Pharmacol (2016)

Emotional empathy was greater than Cognitive (P = 0.005) and Behavioral empathy (P = 0.01) in Pharmacy students. Scores and population distributions are shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835498&req=5

Figure 2: Emotional empathy was greater than Cognitive (P = 0.005) and Behavioral empathy (P = 0.01) in Pharmacy students. Scores and population distributions are shown.
Mentions: Empathy questions were sub-divided into emotional, cognitive, and behavioral categories and answers were scored and ranked on a scale of 0–100%. To compare the effect of gender, year in pharmacy school, and empathy sub-components (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional), a 3-way ANOVA was used. As a graduate population, pharmacy students scored significantly higher in emotional empathy 78.1 ± 0.8% vs. cognitive empathy 73.9 ± 0.7% (P = 0.005) as well as behavioral empathy 73.8 ± 0.9% (P = 0.011). The distribution of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral empathy scores and student numbers are presented in Figure 2. There was not a significant interaction between individual subcomponents of empathy and class year (P = 0.441) or gender (P = 0.441). However, subcomponent scores were significantly lower in the 3rd year class (P < 0.05); Table 1. Similar to the Jefferson empathy scores, females scored significantly higher than males in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th class years (P < 0.05); and 3rd year females scores were lower than 1st, 2nd, and 4th year female scores (P < 0.05); Table 1. Additionally, female 4th year empathy scores were greater than 1st year female scores (P = 0.02; Table 1). In male students, empathy scores were greater in 1st year vs. 3rd year (P = 0.024; Table 1).

Bottom Line: The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20-140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. (2011) and Van Winkle et al. (2012b).Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents.For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove IL, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Empathy is an essential trait for pharmacists and is recognized as a core competency that can be developed in the classroom. There is a growing body of data regarding levels of empathy in pharmacy students; however, these studies have not measured differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional empathy. The goal of this study was to parse the underlying components of empathy and correlate them to psychosocial attributes, with the overall goal of identifying curriculum modifications to enhance levels of empathy in pharmacy students.

Methods: IRB approval was obtained to measure empathy levels in pharmacy students attending Midwestern University. An online, anonymous survey administered through a secure website (REDCap) was used. This survey utilized the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Medical Student version) and included questions regarding demographics and personality traits. Empathy questions were sub-divided into behavioral, cognitive, and emotional categories. Data are presented as mean ± SEM with significance set at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: Three hundred and four pharmacy students at Midwestern University participated in a fall survey with an overall response rate of 37%. The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20-140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. (2011) and Van Winkle et al. (2012b). Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents. For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, negative correlations to empathy were observed for self-serving behavior (R D 0.490, P < 0.001), medical authoritarianism (R D 0.428, P < 0.001), and experience of coercion (R D 0.344, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Overall, empathy levels in pharmacy students are similar to prior studies with females scoring higher than males. Emotional empathy may play a greater role than cognitive and behavioral empathy in this group of students. Targeted programs that promote volunteerism and activities that foster responsiveness to patient needs may attenuate self-serving behavior and medical authoritarianism and, therefore, improve empathy levels in pharmacy students.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus