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Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer.

Saiz JC, Vázquez-Calvo Á, Blázquez AB, Merino-Ramos T, Escribano-Romero E, Martín-Acebes MA - Front Microbiol (2016)

Bottom Line: Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria.ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly.Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map showing worldwide autochthonous and imported ZIKV human cases since the last 9 months. See text for details.
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Figure 5: Map showing worldwide autochthonous and imported ZIKV human cases since the last 9 months. See text for details.

Mentions: Since the first isolation of ZIKV in 1954 from an inhabitant of Nigeria (Macnamara, 1954), many serological and entomological studies have reported the circulation of the virus across a widespread area of Africa, including Kenya (Geser et al., 1970), Nigeria (Lee and Moore, 1972; Monath et al., 1973; Fagbami, 1979), Sierra Leone (Robin and Mouchet, 1975), Gabon (Jan et al., 1978; Grard et al., 2014), Uganda (McCrae and Kirya, 1982), Central African Republic (Saluzzo et al., 1981), Senegal (Monlun et al., 1993; Diallo et al., 2014; Althouse et al., 2015), and Ivory Coast (Akoua-Koffi et al., 2001), with prevalence ranging 1.3–52%. At present, Cape Verde is the only African country where, since last year, active viral transmission is currently being reported8,9 (Figure 5). From the beginning of the outbreak in October 2015 to 7th February of this year, the Health Authorities have reported 7362 cases without associated neurological disorders10. In any case, and although until now human cases of ZIKV related disease have only been sporadically documented in Africa, it should be kept in mind that this might have been partially due to underdiagnoses, mainly in areas where DENV and CHIKV circulate, as infection with all these viruses presents similar clinical signs (Weissenbock et al., 2010; Grard et al., 2014).


Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer.

Saiz JC, Vázquez-Calvo Á, Blázquez AB, Merino-Ramos T, Escribano-Romero E, Martín-Acebes MA - Front Microbiol (2016)

Map showing worldwide autochthonous and imported ZIKV human cases since the last 9 months. See text for details.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835484&req=5

Figure 5: Map showing worldwide autochthonous and imported ZIKV human cases since the last 9 months. See text for details.
Mentions: Since the first isolation of ZIKV in 1954 from an inhabitant of Nigeria (Macnamara, 1954), many serological and entomological studies have reported the circulation of the virus across a widespread area of Africa, including Kenya (Geser et al., 1970), Nigeria (Lee and Moore, 1972; Monath et al., 1973; Fagbami, 1979), Sierra Leone (Robin and Mouchet, 1975), Gabon (Jan et al., 1978; Grard et al., 2014), Uganda (McCrae and Kirya, 1982), Central African Republic (Saluzzo et al., 1981), Senegal (Monlun et al., 1993; Diallo et al., 2014; Althouse et al., 2015), and Ivory Coast (Akoua-Koffi et al., 2001), with prevalence ranging 1.3–52%. At present, Cape Verde is the only African country where, since last year, active viral transmission is currently being reported8,9 (Figure 5). From the beginning of the outbreak in October 2015 to 7th February of this year, the Health Authorities have reported 7362 cases without associated neurological disorders10. In any case, and although until now human cases of ZIKV related disease have only been sporadically documented in Africa, it should be kept in mind that this might have been partially due to underdiagnoses, mainly in areas where DENV and CHIKV circulate, as infection with all these viruses presents similar clinical signs (Weissenbock et al., 2010; Grard et al., 2014).

Bottom Line: Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria.ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly.Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus