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Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer.

Saiz JC, Vázquez-Calvo Á, Blázquez AB, Merino-Ramos T, Escribano-Romero E, Martín-Acebes MA - Front Microbiol (2016)

Bottom Line: Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria.ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly.Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative phylogram showing the relationships between strains of the genus Flavivirus. Accession numbers are displayed in the tree. The arrow indicates ZIKV. The scale indicates 0.2 substitutions/site. The tree was based on complete NS5 nucleotide sequence, built from a multiple alignment using Clustal omega and Phylogeny.fr (Dereeper et al., 2008).
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Figure 3: Representative phylogram showing the relationships between strains of the genus Flavivirus. Accession numbers are displayed in the tree. The arrow indicates ZIKV. The scale indicates 0.2 substitutions/site. The tree was based on complete NS5 nucleotide sequence, built from a multiple alignment using Clustal omega and Phylogeny.fr (Dereeper et al., 2008).

Mentions: Zika virus is genetically and antigenically related to Spondweni virus. Both viruses form a unique clade (clade X) within the mosquito-borne flavivirus cluster (Kuno et al., 1998) (Figure 3). Phylogenetic analyses reveal the existence of two major lineages: one includes the African strains, and the other the Asian and American strains (Haddow et al., 2012; Alera et al., 2015) (Figure 4). The African lineage is further divided into two groups, the East African cluster, containing the genetic variants of the prototypic MR766 strain isolated in Uganda in 1947, and a second group including West African strains (Olson et al., 1981).


Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer.

Saiz JC, Vázquez-Calvo Á, Blázquez AB, Merino-Ramos T, Escribano-Romero E, Martín-Acebes MA - Front Microbiol (2016)

Representative phylogram showing the relationships between strains of the genus Flavivirus. Accession numbers are displayed in the tree. The arrow indicates ZIKV. The scale indicates 0.2 substitutions/site. The tree was based on complete NS5 nucleotide sequence, built from a multiple alignment using Clustal omega and Phylogeny.fr (Dereeper et al., 2008).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835484&req=5

Figure 3: Representative phylogram showing the relationships between strains of the genus Flavivirus. Accession numbers are displayed in the tree. The arrow indicates ZIKV. The scale indicates 0.2 substitutions/site. The tree was based on complete NS5 nucleotide sequence, built from a multiple alignment using Clustal omega and Phylogeny.fr (Dereeper et al., 2008).
Mentions: Zika virus is genetically and antigenically related to Spondweni virus. Both viruses form a unique clade (clade X) within the mosquito-borne flavivirus cluster (Kuno et al., 1998) (Figure 3). Phylogenetic analyses reveal the existence of two major lineages: one includes the African strains, and the other the Asian and American strains (Haddow et al., 2012; Alera et al., 2015) (Figure 4). The African lineage is further divided into two groups, the East African cluster, containing the genetic variants of the prototypic MR766 strain isolated in Uganda in 1947, and a second group including West African strains (Olson et al., 1981).

Bottom Line: Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria.ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly.Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus