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Brown Adipose Tissue Is Linked to a Distinct Thermoregulatory Response to Mild Cold in People.

Chondronikola M, Volpi E, Børsheim E, Chao T, Porter C, Annamalai P, Yfanti C, Labbe SM, Hurren NM, Malagaris I, Cesani F, Sidossis LS - Front Physiol (2016)

Bottom Line: BAT volume was associated with the cold-induced change in core temperature (p = 0.01) even after adjustment for age and adiposity.BAT+: 19.8 ± 0.3°C, p = 0.035) without shivering.The cold-induced change in core temperature (r = 0.79, p = 0.001) and supraclavicular temperature (r = 0.58, p = 0.014) correlated with BAT volume, suggesting that these non-invasive measures can be potentially used as surrogate markers of BAT when other methods to detect BAT are not available or their use is not warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Metabolism Unit, Shriners Hospitals for Children-GalvestonTX, USA; Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Texas Medical BranchGalveston, TX, USA; Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, University of Texas Medical BranchGalveston, TX, USA; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of AthensGreece.

ABSTRACT
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in rodents. Its role in temperature homeostasis in people is less studied. To this end, we recruited 18 men [8 subjects with no/minimal BAT activity (BAT-) and 10 with pronounced BAT activity (BAT+)]. Each volunteer participated in a 6 h, individualized, non-shivering cold exposure protocol. BAT was quantified using positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Body core and skin temperatures were measured using a telemetric pill and wireless thermistors, respectively. Core body temperature decreased during cold exposure in the BAT- group only (-0.34°C, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.1, p = 0.03), while the cold-induced change in core temperature was significantly different between BAT+ and BAT- subjects (BAT+ vs. BAT-, 0.43°C, 95% CI: 0.20-0.65, p = 0.0014). BAT volume was associated with the cold-induced change in core temperature (p = 0.01) even after adjustment for age and adiposity. Compared to the BAT- group, BAT+ subjects tolerated a lower ambient temperature (BAT-: 20.6 ± 0.3°C vs. BAT+: 19.8 ± 0.3°C, p = 0.035) without shivering. The cold-induced change in core temperature (r = 0.79, p = 0.001) and supraclavicular temperature (r = 0.58, p = 0.014) correlated with BAT volume, suggesting that these non-invasive measures can be potentially used as surrogate markers of BAT when other methods to detect BAT are not available or their use is not warranted. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role for BAT in thermoregulation in people. This trial has been registered with Clinaltrials.gov: NCT01791114 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01791114).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation, skin perfusion, and cardiovascular response to cold exposure (CE). (A) Average skin temperature in subjects with detectable BAT (BAT+) and without detectable BAT (BAT−) in thermoneutral (TN) conditions and at 5 h of CE. (B) Distal (hand, foot) skin temperature in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and after 5 h of CE. (C) Vasoconstriction/skin perfusion in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (D) Heart rate in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (E,F) Systolic (E) and diastolic (F) blood pressure in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. Data are means and standard deviations. The data are means and SD. *p < 0.05, ***p = 0.001, ****p < 0.001 using paired t-test.
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Figure 4: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation, skin perfusion, and cardiovascular response to cold exposure (CE). (A) Average skin temperature in subjects with detectable BAT (BAT+) and without detectable BAT (BAT−) in thermoneutral (TN) conditions and at 5 h of CE. (B) Distal (hand, foot) skin temperature in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and after 5 h of CE. (C) Vasoconstriction/skin perfusion in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (D) Heart rate in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (E,F) Systolic (E) and diastolic (F) blood pressure in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. Data are means and standard deviations. The data are means and SD. *p < 0.05, ***p = 0.001, ****p < 0.001 using paired t-test.

Mentions: Finally, we investigated the cold-induced changes in markers of cardiovascular function and cutaneous perfusion in BAT+ and BAT− subjects. The average skin temperature (BAT−: −3.5°C, 95% CI: −4.8 to −2.1, p = 0.001 and BAT+: −3.2°C, 95% CI: −3.7 to −2.7, p < 0.001, Figure 4A) and distal skin temperature (BAT−: −7.4°C, 95% CI: −5.1 to −9.7, p < 0.001 and BAT+: −6.8°C, 95% CI: −8.9 to −4.8, p < 0.001, Figure 4B) significantly decreased in both groups. Moreover, both groups displayed a similar degree of peripheral vasoconstriction during CE (BAT−: −9.9°C, 95% CI: −11.0 to −7.9, p < 0.001 and BAT+: −9.5°C, 95% CI: −12.2 to −6.9, p < 0.001, Figure 4C). Additionally, CE significantly decreased heart rate only in the BAT+ group (−2.5 beats/min, 95% CI: −4.7 to −0.3 p = 0.03, Figure 4D). We noted no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (Figure 4E), while diastolic blood pressure increased in both groups (BAT−: 11.75 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.1–23.6, p = 0.052 and BAT+: 8.2 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.0–15.4, p = 0.03, Figure 4F).


Brown Adipose Tissue Is Linked to a Distinct Thermoregulatory Response to Mild Cold in People.

Chondronikola M, Volpi E, Børsheim E, Chao T, Porter C, Annamalai P, Yfanti C, Labbe SM, Hurren NM, Malagaris I, Cesani F, Sidossis LS - Front Physiol (2016)

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation, skin perfusion, and cardiovascular response to cold exposure (CE). (A) Average skin temperature in subjects with detectable BAT (BAT+) and without detectable BAT (BAT−) in thermoneutral (TN) conditions and at 5 h of CE. (B) Distal (hand, foot) skin temperature in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and after 5 h of CE. (C) Vasoconstriction/skin perfusion in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (D) Heart rate in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (E,F) Systolic (E) and diastolic (F) blood pressure in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. Data are means and standard deviations. The data are means and SD. *p < 0.05, ***p = 0.001, ****p < 0.001 using paired t-test.
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Figure 4: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation, skin perfusion, and cardiovascular response to cold exposure (CE). (A) Average skin temperature in subjects with detectable BAT (BAT+) and without detectable BAT (BAT−) in thermoneutral (TN) conditions and at 5 h of CE. (B) Distal (hand, foot) skin temperature in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and after 5 h of CE. (C) Vasoconstriction/skin perfusion in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (D) Heart rate in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. (E,F) Systolic (E) and diastolic (F) blood pressure in BAT+ and BAT− subjects in TN conditions and at 5 h of CE. Data are means and standard deviations. The data are means and SD. *p < 0.05, ***p = 0.001, ****p < 0.001 using paired t-test.
Mentions: Finally, we investigated the cold-induced changes in markers of cardiovascular function and cutaneous perfusion in BAT+ and BAT− subjects. The average skin temperature (BAT−: −3.5°C, 95% CI: −4.8 to −2.1, p = 0.001 and BAT+: −3.2°C, 95% CI: −3.7 to −2.7, p < 0.001, Figure 4A) and distal skin temperature (BAT−: −7.4°C, 95% CI: −5.1 to −9.7, p < 0.001 and BAT+: −6.8°C, 95% CI: −8.9 to −4.8, p < 0.001, Figure 4B) significantly decreased in both groups. Moreover, both groups displayed a similar degree of peripheral vasoconstriction during CE (BAT−: −9.9°C, 95% CI: −11.0 to −7.9, p < 0.001 and BAT+: −9.5°C, 95% CI: −12.2 to −6.9, p < 0.001, Figure 4C). Additionally, CE significantly decreased heart rate only in the BAT+ group (−2.5 beats/min, 95% CI: −4.7 to −0.3 p = 0.03, Figure 4D). We noted no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (Figure 4E), while diastolic blood pressure increased in both groups (BAT−: 11.75 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.1–23.6, p = 0.052 and BAT+: 8.2 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.0–15.4, p = 0.03, Figure 4F).

Bottom Line: BAT volume was associated with the cold-induced change in core temperature (p = 0.01) even after adjustment for age and adiposity.BAT+: 19.8 ± 0.3°C, p = 0.035) without shivering.The cold-induced change in core temperature (r = 0.79, p = 0.001) and supraclavicular temperature (r = 0.58, p = 0.014) correlated with BAT volume, suggesting that these non-invasive measures can be potentially used as surrogate markers of BAT when other methods to detect BAT are not available or their use is not warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Metabolism Unit, Shriners Hospitals for Children-GalvestonTX, USA; Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Texas Medical BranchGalveston, TX, USA; Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, University of Texas Medical BranchGalveston, TX, USA; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of AthensGreece.

ABSTRACT
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in rodents. Its role in temperature homeostasis in people is less studied. To this end, we recruited 18 men [8 subjects with no/minimal BAT activity (BAT-) and 10 with pronounced BAT activity (BAT+)]. Each volunteer participated in a 6 h, individualized, non-shivering cold exposure protocol. BAT was quantified using positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Body core and skin temperatures were measured using a telemetric pill and wireless thermistors, respectively. Core body temperature decreased during cold exposure in the BAT- group only (-0.34°C, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.1, p = 0.03), while the cold-induced change in core temperature was significantly different between BAT+ and BAT- subjects (BAT+ vs. BAT-, 0.43°C, 95% CI: 0.20-0.65, p = 0.0014). BAT volume was associated with the cold-induced change in core temperature (p = 0.01) even after adjustment for age and adiposity. Compared to the BAT- group, BAT+ subjects tolerated a lower ambient temperature (BAT-: 20.6 ± 0.3°C vs. BAT+: 19.8 ± 0.3°C, p = 0.035) without shivering. The cold-induced change in core temperature (r = 0.79, p = 0.001) and supraclavicular temperature (r = 0.58, p = 0.014) correlated with BAT volume, suggesting that these non-invasive measures can be potentially used as surrogate markers of BAT when other methods to detect BAT are not available or their use is not warranted. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role for BAT in thermoregulation in people. This trial has been registered with Clinaltrials.gov: NCT01791114 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01791114).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus