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Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation.

Hames EC, Murphy B, Rajmohan R, Anderson RC, Baker M, Zupancic S, O'Boyle M, Richman D - Front Hum Neurosci (2016)

Bottom Line: Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20-28.Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy.Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Session 1 alpha and beta EEG power group differences. Results for the alpha band (left) and beta band (right) are presented. Significant differences were determined using the Tukey–Kramer method for p < 0.05.
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Figure 4: Session 1 alpha and beta EEG power group differences. Results for the alpha band (left) and beta band (right) are presented. Significant differences were determined using the Tukey–Kramer method for p < 0.05.

Mentions: The results for both the alpha and beta bands are summarized in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. For additional assistance in visualizing channel locations presented in tables, please refer to Figure 3. EEG average power head plots are presented in Figure 4. Across all channels for all events, EEG average power was lower for the ASD group (graphs of average EEG power). Solely visual tasks displayed little, but consistent, difference between the ASD and NT groups across both bands. For the alpha band frequency, channel groups 1 (medial frontal), 2 (medial occipital), and 8 (right temporal) were shown to be less active in the ASD group. For the beta band frequency, channel group 2 was slightly less active for the ASD group. Lastly, the “first” vs. “second” (VV1 vs. VV2) stimulus presentation generated identical maps of average power, suggesting presentation order made no difference in how these stimuli were processed by the ASD group. On the other hand, tasks containing an auditory stimulus were consistently observed to display significant differences in average power across multiple channel groupings for both the alpha and beta bands. For the alpha band frequency, the ASD group was shown to have decreased activity across all regions: frontal (1, 11, 12, 13, and 14), parietal (9 and 10), temporal (5 and 6), and with the greatest differences observed for the occipital (2, 7, and 8) channels during the “first” (AA1) stimulus presentation. A similar, but attenuated, pattern was seen for the “second” (AA2) stimulus presentation. Lastly, the “second” cross modal stimulus presentation (VA2; i.e., the auditory portion of the cross modal block) produced a similar, seemingly intermediary, pattern to AA1 and AA2. Recordings of beta band frequencies produced similar, yet less extensive, patterns of deactivation for each of the corresponding audio containing trials.


Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation.

Hames EC, Murphy B, Rajmohan R, Anderson RC, Baker M, Zupancic S, O'Boyle M, Richman D - Front Hum Neurosci (2016)

Session 1 alpha and beta EEG power group differences. Results for the alpha band (left) and beta band (right) are presented. Significant differences were determined using the Tukey–Kramer method for p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835455&req=5

Figure 4: Session 1 alpha and beta EEG power group differences. Results for the alpha band (left) and beta band (right) are presented. Significant differences were determined using the Tukey–Kramer method for p < 0.05.
Mentions: The results for both the alpha and beta bands are summarized in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. For additional assistance in visualizing channel locations presented in tables, please refer to Figure 3. EEG average power head plots are presented in Figure 4. Across all channels for all events, EEG average power was lower for the ASD group (graphs of average EEG power). Solely visual tasks displayed little, but consistent, difference between the ASD and NT groups across both bands. For the alpha band frequency, channel groups 1 (medial frontal), 2 (medial occipital), and 8 (right temporal) were shown to be less active in the ASD group. For the beta band frequency, channel group 2 was slightly less active for the ASD group. Lastly, the “first” vs. “second” (VV1 vs. VV2) stimulus presentation generated identical maps of average power, suggesting presentation order made no difference in how these stimuli were processed by the ASD group. On the other hand, tasks containing an auditory stimulus were consistently observed to display significant differences in average power across multiple channel groupings for both the alpha and beta bands. For the alpha band frequency, the ASD group was shown to have decreased activity across all regions: frontal (1, 11, 12, 13, and 14), parietal (9 and 10), temporal (5 and 6), and with the greatest differences observed for the occipital (2, 7, and 8) channels during the “first” (AA1) stimulus presentation. A similar, but attenuated, pattern was seen for the “second” (AA2) stimulus presentation. Lastly, the “second” cross modal stimulus presentation (VA2; i.e., the auditory portion of the cross modal block) produced a similar, seemingly intermediary, pattern to AA1 and AA2. Recordings of beta band frequencies produced similar, yet less extensive, patterns of deactivation for each of the corresponding audio containing trials.

Bottom Line: Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20-28.Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy.Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus