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Obtaining Longitudinal Built Environment Data Retrospectively across 25 years in Four US Cities.

Hirsch JA, Meyer KA, Peterson M, Rodriguez DA, Song Y, Peng K, Huh J, Gordon-Larsen P - Front Public Health (2016)

Bottom Line: Ultimately, these data were linked to CARDIA sites' respondents' geographic locations over the 25-year study period to examine associations with health behaviors and outcomes.We found large increases in bicycle infrastructure, with the exception of Birmingham, AL, USA.The data produced give insight into the way neighborhood infrastructure has changed over time and the potential relationship between these changes and health behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, NC , USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Neighborhood transportation infrastructure and public recreational facilities are theorized to improve the activity, weight, and cardiometabolic profiles of individuals living in close proximity to these resources. However, owing to data limitations, there has not been adequate study of the influence of timing and placement of new infrastructure on health over time.

Methods: This protocol details methods of the four cities study to perform retrospective field audits in order to capitalize on existing longitudinal health data from the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. We developed and verified measures of recreation facilities (trails, parks) and transportation infrastructure (bus, light rail, bicycle parking, bicycle paths) in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA (USA). We identify introductions, renovations, and closures between 1985 and 2010 to develop measures of facility and infrastructure change. Ultimately, these data were linked to CARDIA sites' respondents' geographic locations over the 25-year study period to examine associations with health behaviors and outcomes.

Results: Data available for retrospective audits was inconsistent by city, primarily due to record-keeping differences. We found large increases in bicycle infrastructure, with the exception of Birmingham, AL, USA. Excluding the addition of a new rail line in Minneapolis, MN, USA, few changes occurred in bus service, rail, and parks.

Conclusion: Our method represents innovation toward the collection of retrospective neighborhood data for use in longitudinal analyses. The data produced give insight into the way neighborhood infrastructure has changed over time and the potential relationship between these changes and health behaviors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Change in distance of bicycle lanes and recreational trails (kilometers) between 1985 and 2011 by city in the CARDIA four cities field audit. Green represents Chicago, IL, USA; blue represents Oakland, CA, USA; purple represents Minneapolis, MN, USA; red represents Birmingham, AL, USA.
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Figure 3: Change in distance of bicycle lanes and recreational trails (kilometers) between 1985 and 2011 by city in the CARDIA four cities field audit. Green represents Chicago, IL, USA; blue represents Oakland, CA, USA; purple represents Minneapolis, MN, USA; red represents Birmingham, AL, USA.

Mentions: Bicycle parking, lanes, and recreation trails all increased dramatically between 1985 and 2011. Most notably, bicycle parking increased in Chicago, IL and Oakland, CA (USA) starting in 2000 (Figure 2). Similarly, tremendous growth occurred in bicycle lanes and recreational trails in all cities except Birmingham, AL, USA starting in the mid 1990s and continuing until the end of the retrospective audit (Figure 3). Minneapolis, MN, USA experienced the largest increase, followed by Chicago, IL, USA, and then by Oakland, CA, USA. During the duration of the retrospective audit, minimal changes occurred in bus service, rail lines and stations, and parks (Figures S6–S9 in Supplementary Material). However, bus service increased slightly in Birmingham, AL and Minneapolis, MN (USA). In addition, while Minneapolis, MN and Birmingham, AL (USA) did not have rail lines for the earlier part of the study, Minneapolis, MN, USA started a rail line in 2004 with 10 stations (adding 1 more station post-completion).


Obtaining Longitudinal Built Environment Data Retrospectively across 25 years in Four US Cities.

Hirsch JA, Meyer KA, Peterson M, Rodriguez DA, Song Y, Peng K, Huh J, Gordon-Larsen P - Front Public Health (2016)

Change in distance of bicycle lanes and recreational trails (kilometers) between 1985 and 2011 by city in the CARDIA four cities field audit. Green represents Chicago, IL, USA; blue represents Oakland, CA, USA; purple represents Minneapolis, MN, USA; red represents Birmingham, AL, USA.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835448&req=5

Figure 3: Change in distance of bicycle lanes and recreational trails (kilometers) between 1985 and 2011 by city in the CARDIA four cities field audit. Green represents Chicago, IL, USA; blue represents Oakland, CA, USA; purple represents Minneapolis, MN, USA; red represents Birmingham, AL, USA.
Mentions: Bicycle parking, lanes, and recreation trails all increased dramatically between 1985 and 2011. Most notably, bicycle parking increased in Chicago, IL and Oakland, CA (USA) starting in 2000 (Figure 2). Similarly, tremendous growth occurred in bicycle lanes and recreational trails in all cities except Birmingham, AL, USA starting in the mid 1990s and continuing until the end of the retrospective audit (Figure 3). Minneapolis, MN, USA experienced the largest increase, followed by Chicago, IL, USA, and then by Oakland, CA, USA. During the duration of the retrospective audit, minimal changes occurred in bus service, rail lines and stations, and parks (Figures S6–S9 in Supplementary Material). However, bus service increased slightly in Birmingham, AL and Minneapolis, MN (USA). In addition, while Minneapolis, MN and Birmingham, AL (USA) did not have rail lines for the earlier part of the study, Minneapolis, MN, USA started a rail line in 2004 with 10 stations (adding 1 more station post-completion).

Bottom Line: Ultimately, these data were linked to CARDIA sites' respondents' geographic locations over the 25-year study period to examine associations with health behaviors and outcomes.We found large increases in bicycle infrastructure, with the exception of Birmingham, AL, USA.The data produced give insight into the way neighborhood infrastructure has changed over time and the potential relationship between these changes and health behaviors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, NC , USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Neighborhood transportation infrastructure and public recreational facilities are theorized to improve the activity, weight, and cardiometabolic profiles of individuals living in close proximity to these resources. However, owing to data limitations, there has not been adequate study of the influence of timing and placement of new infrastructure on health over time.

Methods: This protocol details methods of the four cities study to perform retrospective field audits in order to capitalize on existing longitudinal health data from the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. We developed and verified measures of recreation facilities (trails, parks) and transportation infrastructure (bus, light rail, bicycle parking, bicycle paths) in Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA (USA). We identify introductions, renovations, and closures between 1985 and 2010 to develop measures of facility and infrastructure change. Ultimately, these data were linked to CARDIA sites' respondents' geographic locations over the 25-year study period to examine associations with health behaviors and outcomes.

Results: Data available for retrospective audits was inconsistent by city, primarily due to record-keeping differences. We found large increases in bicycle infrastructure, with the exception of Birmingham, AL, USA. Excluding the addition of a new rail line in Minneapolis, MN, USA, few changes occurred in bus service, rail, and parks.

Conclusion: Our method represents innovation toward the collection of retrospective neighborhood data for use in longitudinal analyses. The data produced give insight into the way neighborhood infrastructure has changed over time and the potential relationship between these changes and health behaviors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus