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Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

Gaines KP, Stanley JW, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA, Woodruff DR, Chen W, Adams TS, Lin H, Eissenstat DM - Tree Physiol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment.While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected.Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Depiction of Shale Hills catchment and related plant and soil traits with relative slope position and relative elevation. Values shown indicate mean ± standard error. Tree water isotope data shown are for dry dates. Tree height and soil depth at tree locations are for all trees sampled during the study. Tree height (P < 0.001) and soil depth (P < 0.0001) varied by slope position (differences denoted with letters), while root length did not (P = 0.5). Average δ2H and δ18O compositions shown for trees at each slope position (top), along with effective rooting depth estimates (bottom, shown for illustrative purposes only). Isotopic compositions varied by soil depth, but not by slope position. Error bars represent mean ± standard error.
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TPV113F3: Depiction of Shale Hills catchment and related plant and soil traits with relative slope position and relative elevation. Values shown indicate mean ± standard error. Tree water isotope data shown are for dry dates. Tree height and soil depth at tree locations are for all trees sampled during the study. Tree height (P < 0.001) and soil depth (P < 0.0001) varied by slope position (differences denoted with letters), while root length did not (P = 0.5). Average δ2H and δ18O compositions shown for trees at each slope position (top), along with effective rooting depth estimates (bottom, shown for illustrative purposes only). Isotopic compositions varied by soil depth, but not by slope position. Error bars represent mean ± standard error.

Mentions: Average tree size varied among genera, with Acer tending to be smaller than some of the other genera (Table 1). Mean DBH and height differed significantly by tree genus, with Acer smaller on average than Quercus (P < 0.01 for DBH and P < 0.001 for height). Average height varied by slope position, with the tallest trees on the valley floor and the shortest trees on the ridge and midslopes (P < 0.05, Figure 3). Soil depth varied by slope position (P < 0.01), with valley soils 41 cm deeper on average than soils on the midslope and 52 cm deeper than soils on the ridge (Figure 3). Accordingly, there was a negative correlation of soil depth and elevation (r = 0.40), with trees at higher elevations tending to be located on shallower soil than trees at lower elevations.Figure 3.


Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

Gaines KP, Stanley JW, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA, Woodruff DR, Chen W, Adams TS, Lin H, Eissenstat DM - Tree Physiol. (2015)

Depiction of Shale Hills catchment and related plant and soil traits with relative slope position and relative elevation. Values shown indicate mean ± standard error. Tree water isotope data shown are for dry dates. Tree height and soil depth at tree locations are for all trees sampled during the study. Tree height (P < 0.001) and soil depth (P < 0.0001) varied by slope position (differences denoted with letters), while root length did not (P = 0.5). Average δ2H and δ18O compositions shown for trees at each slope position (top), along with effective rooting depth estimates (bottom, shown for illustrative purposes only). Isotopic compositions varied by soil depth, but not by slope position. Error bars represent mean ± standard error.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835221&req=5

TPV113F3: Depiction of Shale Hills catchment and related plant and soil traits with relative slope position and relative elevation. Values shown indicate mean ± standard error. Tree water isotope data shown are for dry dates. Tree height and soil depth at tree locations are for all trees sampled during the study. Tree height (P < 0.001) and soil depth (P < 0.0001) varied by slope position (differences denoted with letters), while root length did not (P = 0.5). Average δ2H and δ18O compositions shown for trees at each slope position (top), along with effective rooting depth estimates (bottom, shown for illustrative purposes only). Isotopic compositions varied by soil depth, but not by slope position. Error bars represent mean ± standard error.
Mentions: Average tree size varied among genera, with Acer tending to be smaller than some of the other genera (Table 1). Mean DBH and height differed significantly by tree genus, with Acer smaller on average than Quercus (P < 0.01 for DBH and P < 0.001 for height). Average height varied by slope position, with the tallest trees on the valley floor and the shortest trees on the ridge and midslopes (P < 0.05, Figure 3). Soil depth varied by slope position (P < 0.01), with valley soils 41 cm deeper on average than soils on the midslope and 52 cm deeper than soils on the ridge (Figure 3). Accordingly, there was a negative correlation of soil depth and elevation (r = 0.40), with trees at higher elevations tending to be located on shallower soil than trees at lower elevations.Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment.While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected.Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

No MeSH data available.