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Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

Gaines KP, Stanley JW, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA, Woodruff DR, Chen W, Adams TS, Lin H, Eissenstat DM - Tree Physiol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment.While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected.Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Environmental conditions during 2009 and 2011. Precipitation amount (mm) in black bars on primary y-axis (left), volumetric water content at 20 cm depth (m3 m−3) on secondary axis (right) and air temperature (°C) minimum and maximum daily values on tertiary y-axis (far right). Sample dates for data shown in remainder of results are displayed with dashed horizontal lines.
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TPV113F2: Environmental conditions during 2009 and 2011. Precipitation amount (mm) in black bars on primary y-axis (left), volumetric water content at 20 cm depth (m3 m−3) on secondary axis (right) and air temperature (°C) minimum and maximum daily values on tertiary y-axis (far right). Sample dates for data shown in remainder of results are displayed with dashed horizontal lines.

Mentions: Average air temperatures for this region of Pennsylvania from May to September are ∼18 °C with precipitation of ∼94 mm per month (NOAA 2015). Weather conditions were in the average range during the growing season of 2009, but were wetter overall in 2011 (NOAA 2014, Figure 2). Annual precipitation in 2009 was 1033 and 1321 mm in 2011. While there was no precipitation in July of 2011, leading to sharp declines in soil moisture during that month, the beginning and end of the growing season were quite wet. Rainfall in 2009 occurred regularly throughout the summer with average soil moisture decline beginning in early July (DOY = 182). Sample dates, indicated by the solid horizontal lines in Figure 2, were chosen from late June to early September in order to represent periods likely to coincide with soil moisture deficits as reflected in reduced volumetric water content (dash-dot line in Figure 2). In contrast, central Pennsylvania experienced moderate hydrologic drought from June to September of 2010 (NOAA 2014).Figure 2.


Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

Gaines KP, Stanley JW, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA, Woodruff DR, Chen W, Adams TS, Lin H, Eissenstat DM - Tree Physiol. (2015)

Environmental conditions during 2009 and 2011. Precipitation amount (mm) in black bars on primary y-axis (left), volumetric water content at 20 cm depth (m3 m−3) on secondary axis (right) and air temperature (°C) minimum and maximum daily values on tertiary y-axis (far right). Sample dates for data shown in remainder of results are displayed with dashed horizontal lines.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835221&req=5

TPV113F2: Environmental conditions during 2009 and 2011. Precipitation amount (mm) in black bars on primary y-axis (left), volumetric water content at 20 cm depth (m3 m−3) on secondary axis (right) and air temperature (°C) minimum and maximum daily values on tertiary y-axis (far right). Sample dates for data shown in remainder of results are displayed with dashed horizontal lines.
Mentions: Average air temperatures for this region of Pennsylvania from May to September are ∼18 °C with precipitation of ∼94 mm per month (NOAA 2015). Weather conditions were in the average range during the growing season of 2009, but were wetter overall in 2011 (NOAA 2014, Figure 2). Annual precipitation in 2009 was 1033 and 1321 mm in 2011. While there was no precipitation in July of 2011, leading to sharp declines in soil moisture during that month, the beginning and end of the growing season were quite wet. Rainfall in 2009 occurred regularly throughout the summer with average soil moisture decline beginning in early July (DOY = 182). Sample dates, indicated by the solid horizontal lines in Figure 2, were chosen from late June to early September in order to represent periods likely to coincide with soil moisture deficits as reflected in reduced volumetric water content (dash-dot line in Figure 2). In contrast, central Pennsylvania experienced moderate hydrologic drought from June to September of 2010 (NOAA 2014).Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment.While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected.Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus