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Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

Gaines KP, Stanley JW, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA, Woodruff DR, Chen W, Adams TS, Lin H, Eissenstat DM - Tree Physiol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment.While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected.Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Study area and trees sampled. Points represent locations of isotope sampling including trees sampled for stem water in 2009 and 2011, groundwater (average of 2009 and 2011 groundwater used for calculations), lysimeter nests for mobile soil water sampling (2009 and 2011; 10–340 cm depths), sites of coring for bulk soil water samples (2012) at 10, 20 and 30 cm depth and sites for root length density sampling (2013; 10 cm to up to 140 cm deep). Sensor locations are also shown for soil moisture (volumetric water content from 2009; up to 162 cm deep) and sap flow (2009; south ridge site). Precipitation isotopes and amount (2009 and 2011) were measured using equipment near the meteorological tower on the north ridge top.
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TPV113F1: Study area and trees sampled. Points represent locations of isotope sampling including trees sampled for stem water in 2009 and 2011, groundwater (average of 2009 and 2011 groundwater used for calculations), lysimeter nests for mobile soil water sampling (2009 and 2011; 10–340 cm depths), sites of coring for bulk soil water samples (2012) at 10, 20 and 30 cm depth and sites for root length density sampling (2013; 10 cm to up to 140 cm deep). Sensor locations are also shown for soil moisture (volumetric water content from 2009; up to 162 cm deep) and sap flow (2009; south ridge site). Precipitation isotopes and amount (2009 and 2011) were measured using equipment near the meteorological tower on the north ridge top.

Mentions: The Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Shale Hills; Lat. 40°39′ N, Long. 77°54′ W, elevation 256–310 m) was chosen as a study site because of the well-characterized topography, soils and vegetation and the distribution of different individuals of the same genera in areas with contrasting soil depth (Figure 1) and other soil conditions. Shale Hills is a 7.9-ha catchment within Penn State University's Stone Valley Research Forest. The catchment is v-shaped with north- and south-facing slopes, and a valley floor serving as a floodplain for the stream that runs east to west. The forest was last harvested for timber in the 1930s and has been used for research purposes since the 1970s (Naithani et al. 2013). In 2008, the forest was surveyed for trees over 18 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH), species and crown class. Additional diameter and height measurements were taken in subsequent years to record growth, and the survey was updated in 2012. Forest composition on a basal area basis predominantly consisted of the hardwoods Quercus, Carya and Acer, in addition to conifers of Tsuga and Pinus.Figure 1.


Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania.

Gaines KP, Stanley JW, Meinzer FC, McCulloh KA, Woodruff DR, Chen W, Adams TS, Lin H, Eissenstat DM - Tree Physiol. (2015)

Study area and trees sampled. Points represent locations of isotope sampling including trees sampled for stem water in 2009 and 2011, groundwater (average of 2009 and 2011 groundwater used for calculations), lysimeter nests for mobile soil water sampling (2009 and 2011; 10–340 cm depths), sites of coring for bulk soil water samples (2012) at 10, 20 and 30 cm depth and sites for root length density sampling (2013; 10 cm to up to 140 cm deep). Sensor locations are also shown for soil moisture (volumetric water content from 2009; up to 162 cm deep) and sap flow (2009; south ridge site). Precipitation isotopes and amount (2009 and 2011) were measured using equipment near the meteorological tower on the north ridge top.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835221&req=5

TPV113F1: Study area and trees sampled. Points represent locations of isotope sampling including trees sampled for stem water in 2009 and 2011, groundwater (average of 2009 and 2011 groundwater used for calculations), lysimeter nests for mobile soil water sampling (2009 and 2011; 10–340 cm depths), sites of coring for bulk soil water samples (2012) at 10, 20 and 30 cm depth and sites for root length density sampling (2013; 10 cm to up to 140 cm deep). Sensor locations are also shown for soil moisture (volumetric water content from 2009; up to 162 cm deep) and sap flow (2009; south ridge site). Precipitation isotopes and amount (2009 and 2011) were measured using equipment near the meteorological tower on the north ridge top.
Mentions: The Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Shale Hills; Lat. 40°39′ N, Long. 77°54′ W, elevation 256–310 m) was chosen as a study site because of the well-characterized topography, soils and vegetation and the distribution of different individuals of the same genera in areas with contrasting soil depth (Figure 1) and other soil conditions. Shale Hills is a 7.9-ha catchment within Penn State University's Stone Valley Research Forest. The catchment is v-shaped with north- and south-facing slopes, and a valley floor serving as a floodplain for the stream that runs east to west. The forest was last harvested for timber in the 1930s and has been used for research purposes since the 1970s (Naithani et al. 2013). In 2008, the forest was surveyed for trees over 18 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH), species and crown class. Additional diameter and height measurements were taken in subsequent years to record growth, and the survey was updated in 2012. Forest composition on a basal area basis predominantly consisted of the hardwoods Quercus, Carya and Acer, in addition to conifers of Tsuga and Pinus.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Based on multiple lines of evidence, including stable isotope natural abundance, sap flux and soil moisture depletion patterns with depth, the majority of water uptake during the dry part of the growing season occurred, on average, at less than ∼60 cm soil depth throughout the catchment.While there were some trends in depth of water uptake related to genus, tree size and soil depth, water uptake was more uniformly shallow than we expected.Our results suggest that these types of forests may rely considerably on water sources that are quite shallow, even in the drier parts of the growing season.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

No MeSH data available.