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Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

Perez Perez GI, Gao Z, Jourdain R, Ramirez J, Gany F, Clavaud C, Demaude J, Breton L, Blaser MJ - PLoS ONE (2016)

Bottom Line: Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups.We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp) in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.

Methods: Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.

Results: Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.

Conclusions: We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

Show MeSH
Taxonomic analysis of cutaneous microbiota from 110 subjects in six different subject groups.Panel A. By site (arm, axilla, scalp) at the phylum level. A total of 41 phyla were found. The sequences for the dominant 9 phyla (>0.1% in any group) accounted for >99.7% of total sequences in all ethnic groups. Baseline: Samples collected before special soap wash used. Follow-up: Samples collected after special soap wash used. Panel B: Genus level. A total 726 genera were detected; only predominant genera (Mean>0.01%) are shown.
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pone.0151990.g004: Taxonomic analysis of cutaneous microbiota from 110 subjects in six different subject groups.Panel A. By site (arm, axilla, scalp) at the phylum level. A total of 41 phyla were found. The sequences for the dominant 9 phyla (>0.1% in any group) accounted for >99.7% of total sequences in all ethnic groups. Baseline: Samples collected before special soap wash used. Follow-up: Samples collected after special soap wash used. Panel B: Genus level. A total 726 genera were detected; only predominant genera (Mean>0.01%) are shown.

Mentions: For all three skin locations and times, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria together were the dominant phyla, followed by Proteobacteria. These three phyla represent >90% of all the resident taxa. Taxonomic analysis of the samples at baseline and at follow-up showed substantial stability of the major phyla at each specific skin site for each ethnic group (Fig 4, Panel A). Only the South Asian men had substantial variation between the baseline and follow-up samples, as observed in all three locations (Fig 4, Panel A). When we compared the number of genera present in each skin site across all of the groups, the axilla had the fewest (726), the arm had the most (1284), and the scalp was intermediate (1034). These differences in the number of genera were consistent at both time points (Fig 4, Panel B). Inter-site differences in the most abundant genera (present in >0.1%) among the six groups of volunteers included Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium with the most substantial variation, with > 80% on the axilla and the scalp, but < 50% on the arm. Genus Propionibacterium was more abundant in the axilla and scalp than on the arm, except in African-Continental and Latin American men. Most of the study groups had stable skin microbiota, independent of their country of origin, at the genus level, across the times studied with only the single exception discussed above. Particularly on the arm and scalp of the South Asian men, the relative abundance of genus Acinetobacter was decreased, with several replacing genera (Fig 4, Panel B); this confirmed the major differences observed at the global level, based on the UniFrac distances.


Body Site Is a More Determinant Factor than Human Population Diversity in the Healthy Skin Microbiome.

Perez Perez GI, Gao Z, Jourdain R, Ramirez J, Gany F, Clavaud C, Demaude J, Breton L, Blaser MJ - PLoS ONE (2016)

Taxonomic analysis of cutaneous microbiota from 110 subjects in six different subject groups.Panel A. By site (arm, axilla, scalp) at the phylum level. A total of 41 phyla were found. The sequences for the dominant 9 phyla (>0.1% in any group) accounted for >99.7% of total sequences in all ethnic groups. Baseline: Samples collected before special soap wash used. Follow-up: Samples collected after special soap wash used. Panel B: Genus level. A total 726 genera were detected; only predominant genera (Mean>0.01%) are shown.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4835103&req=5

pone.0151990.g004: Taxonomic analysis of cutaneous microbiota from 110 subjects in six different subject groups.Panel A. By site (arm, axilla, scalp) at the phylum level. A total of 41 phyla were found. The sequences for the dominant 9 phyla (>0.1% in any group) accounted for >99.7% of total sequences in all ethnic groups. Baseline: Samples collected before special soap wash used. Follow-up: Samples collected after special soap wash used. Panel B: Genus level. A total 726 genera were detected; only predominant genera (Mean>0.01%) are shown.
Mentions: For all three skin locations and times, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria together were the dominant phyla, followed by Proteobacteria. These three phyla represent >90% of all the resident taxa. Taxonomic analysis of the samples at baseline and at follow-up showed substantial stability of the major phyla at each specific skin site for each ethnic group (Fig 4, Panel A). Only the South Asian men had substantial variation between the baseline and follow-up samples, as observed in all three locations (Fig 4, Panel A). When we compared the number of genera present in each skin site across all of the groups, the axilla had the fewest (726), the arm had the most (1284), and the scalp was intermediate (1034). These differences in the number of genera were consistent at both time points (Fig 4, Panel B). Inter-site differences in the most abundant genera (present in >0.1%) among the six groups of volunteers included Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium with the most substantial variation, with > 80% on the axilla and the scalp, but < 50% on the arm. Genus Propionibacterium was more abundant in the axilla and scalp than on the arm, except in African-Continental and Latin American men. Most of the study groups had stable skin microbiota, independent of their country of origin, at the genus level, across the times studied with only the single exception discussed above. Particularly on the arm and scalp of the South Asian men, the relative abundance of genus Acinetobacter was decreased, with several replacing genera (Fig 4, Panel B); this confirmed the major differences observed at the global level, based on the UniFrac distances.

Bottom Line: Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups.We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants.We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: We studied skin microbiota present in three skin sites (forearm, axilla, scalp) in men from six ethnic groups living in New York City.

Methods: Samples were obtained at baseline and after four days following use of neutral soap and stopping regular hygiene products, including shampoos and deodorants. DNA was extracted using the MoBio Power Lyzer kit and 16S rRNA gene sequences determined on the IIlumina MiSeq platform, using QIIME for analysis.

Results: Our analysis confirmed skin swabbing as a useful method for sampling different areas of the skin because DNA concentrations and number of sequences obtained across subject libraries were similar. We confirmed that skin location was the main factor determining the composition of bacterial communities. Alpha diversity, expressed as number of species observed, was greater in arm than on scalp or axilla in all studied groups. We observed an unexpected increase in α-diversity on arm, with similar tendency on scalp, in the South Asian group after subjects stopped using their regular shampoos and deodorants. Significant differences at phylum and genus levels were observed between subjects of the different ethnic origins at all skin sites.

Conclusions: We conclude that ethnicity and particular soap and shampoo practices are secondary factors compared to the ecological zone of the human body in determining cutaneous microbiota composition.

Show MeSH